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FIGURE 32-3 A one-cell robotic eye, using a CdS photocell as a light sensor.
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FIGURE 32-4 How to couple the photocell to a comparator.
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So far, you have a nice light-to-voltage sensor, and when you think about it there are numerous ways to interface this ultrasimple circuit to a robot. One way is to connect the output of the sensor to the input of a comparator. (The LM339 quad comparator IC is a good choice, but you can use just about any comparator.) The output of the comparator changes state when the voltage at its input goes beyond or below a certain trip point. In the circuit shown in Fig. 32-4 (refer to the parts list in Table 32-1), the comparator is hooked up so the noninverting input serves as a voltage reference. Adjust the potentiometer to set the trip point (or voltage threshold) by first setting it at the midway point and then adjusting the trip point higher or lower as required. The output of the photocell voltage divider circuit is connected to the inverting input of the comparator, which will change. When the photocell voltage divider voltage passes through the threshold voltage, then output of the comparator changes state.
TABLE 32-1 IC1 R1 R2 R3 LD1
Parts List for Single-Cell Robotic Eye LM339 quad comparator IC 3.3K resistor 10K potentiometer 10K resistor Photocell
32.3 MULTIPLE-CELL LIGHT SENSORS
One practical application of this circuit is to detect light levels that are higher than the ambient light in the room. Doing so enables your robot to ignore the background light level and respond only to the higher intensity light. To begin, set the trip point potentiometer so the circuit just switches HIGH. Use a flashlight to focus a beam directly onto the photocell, and watch the output of the comparator change state. Another application is to use the photocell as a light detector. Set the potentiometer to one extreme so the comparator changes state just after light is applied to the surface of the cell.
32.3 Multiple-Cell Light Sensors
The human eye has millions of tiny light receptacles. Combined, these receptacles allow us to discern shapes, to actually see rather than just detect light levels. A crude but surprisingly useful approximation of human sight is given in Fig. 32-5 (refer to the parts list in Table 32-2). Here, eight photocells are connected to a 16-channel multiplexed analog-to-digital converter (ADC). The ADC, which has enough pins for another eight cells, converts the analog voltages from the outputs of each photocell and one by one converts them into digital data. The eight-bit binary number presented at the output of the ADC represents any of 256 different light levels. The converter is hooked up in such a way that the outputs of the photocells are converted sequentially, in a row and column pattern, following the suggested mounting scheme shown in Figs. 32-6 and 32-7. A computer hooked up to the A/D converter records the digital value of each cell and creates an image matrix, which can be used to discern crude shapes. Each photocell is connected in series with a resistor, as with the one-cell eye presented earlier. Initially, use 2.2K resistors, but feel free to substitute higher or lower values to increase or decrease sensitivity. The photocells should be identical, and for the best results, they should be brand-new prime components. Before placing the cells in the circuit, test each one with a volt-ohm meter and a carefully controlled light source. Check the resistance of the photocell in complete darkness, then again with a light shining at it a specific distance away. Reject cells that do not fall within a 5 to 10 percent pass range. See 14, Computer Peripherals, for more information on using ADCs and connecting them to computer ports and microprocessors. Note the short pulse that appears at pin 13 of the ADC; the end-of-conversion (EOC) output. This pin signals that the data at the output lines are valid. If you are using a computer or microcontroller, you can connect this pin to an interrupt line (if available). Using an interrupt line lets your computer do other things while it waits for the ADC to signal the end of a conversion. You can get by without using the EOC pin the circuit is easier to implement without it but you must set up a timing delay circuit or routine to do so. The delay routine is probably the easiest route; simply wait long enough for the conversion to take place (a maximum of about 115 s), then read the data. Even with a delay of 125 s (to allow for settling, etc.), it takes no more than about 200 ms to read the entire matrix of cells.
+5V R9 2.2K R10 2.2K LD1-LD8 11 26 IN0 VCC 27 IN1 28 IN2 1 IN3 2 IN4 3 IN5 4 IN6 5 IN7 IC1 ADC0816 9 22 OE ALE 12 +RF Q7 Q6 Q5 Q4 Q3 Q2 Q1 Q0 EOC R1-R8 2.2K (see text) Input Select 25 24 SC 21 MSB 20 19 18 8 15 14 17 LSB 7 6 Digital Outputs End of Conversion Start Conversion A1 A2 23 A4 GND 13 -RF 16 CLK 10 500kHz In
FIGURE 32-5 One way to make a robotic eye. The circuit, as shown, consists of eight photocells connected to an ADC0816 eight-bit, 16-input analog-to-digital converter IC. The output of each photocell is converted when selected at the Input Select lines. The ADC0816 can handle up to 16 inputs, so you can add another eight cells.
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