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FIGURE 32-14 Most CD players use a diffraction grating to break up the single laser beam into several subbeams. The sub-beams are used to focus and track the optical system.
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FIGURE 32-15 A penlight laser, diffraction grating, filter, and video camera can be used to create a lowcost machine vision system.
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Instruments and Midwest Laser Products, among other sources, provide a variety of penlight lasers and optical filters you can use (see Appendix B). The main benefit of the laser diffraction system is this: it s easier to write software that measures the distance between pixels than it is to write software that attempts to recognize shapes and patterns. For many machine vision applications, it is not as important for the robot to recognize the actual shape of an object as it is to navigate around or manipulate that shape. As an example, a robot may see a chair in its path, but there is little practical need for it to recognize the chair as an early-eighteenth-century Queen Anne style two-
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FIGURE 32-16 When projected onto a flat surface, the beams from the diffracted laser light form a regular grid.
32.7 GOING BEYOND LIGHT-SENSITIVE VISION
seater settee. All it really needs to know is that something is there, and by moving left or right that object can be avoided.
32.7 Going Beyond Light-Sensitive Vision
Sight provides a fast and efficient way for us to determine our surroundings. The eyes take in a wide field, and the brain processes what the eyes see to compose a picture of the immediate environment. Taking a cue from the special senses evolved by some animals, however, visual eyesight is not the only way to see. For instance, bats use high-pitched sound to quickly and efficiently navigate through dark caves. So accurate is their sonar that bats can sense tiny insects flying a dozen or more feet away. Similarly, robots don t always need light-sensitive vision systems. You may want to consider using an alternative system, either instead of or in addition to light-sensitive vision. The following sections outline some affordable technologies you can easily use.
32.7.1 ULTRASONICS
Like a bat, your robot can use high-frequency sounds to navigate its surroundings. Ultrasonic transducers are common in Polaroid instant cameras, electronic tape-measuring devices, automotive backup alarms, and security systems. All work by sending out a highfrequency burst of sound, then measuring the amount of time it takes to receive the reflected sound. Ultrasonic systems are designed to determine distance between the transducer and an object in front of it. More accurate versions can map an area to create a type of topographical image, showing the relative distances of several nearby objects along a kind of 3-D plane. Such ultrasonic systems are regularly used in the medical field (e.g., an ultrasound picture of a baby still inside the mother). Some transducers are designed to be used in pairs: one transducer to emit a series of short ultrasonic bursts, another transducer to receive the sound. Other transducers, such as the kind used on Polaroid cameras and electronic tape-measuring devices, combine the transmitter and receiver into one unit. It should be noted that ultrasonics tend to require a great deal of power making them best suited for large robots. An important aspect of ultrasonic imagery is that high sound frequencies disperse less readily than do low-frequency ones. That is, the sound wave produced by a high-frequency source spreads out much less broadly than the sound wave from a low-frequency source. This phenomenon improves the accuracy of ultrasonic systems. Both DigiKey and All Electronics, among others, have been known to carry new and surplus ultrasonic components suitable for robot experimenters. See 30 for more information on using ultrasonic sensors to guide your robots.
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