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33.3 Wall Following
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Robots that can follow walls are similar to those that can trace a line. Like the line, the wall is used to provide the robot with navigation orientation. One benefit of wall-following robots is that you can use them without having to paint any lines or lay down tape. Depending on the robot s design, the machine can even maneuver around small obstacles (doorstops, door frame molding, radiator pipes, etc.).
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33.3.1 VARIATIONS OF WALL FOLLOWING
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Wall following can be accomplished with any of four methods:
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Contact. The robot uses a mechanical switch, or a stiff wire connected to a switch, to sense contact with the wall, as shown in Fig. 33-7a. This is by far the simplest method, but the switch is prone to mechanical damage over time. Noncontact, active sensor. The robot uses active proximity sensors, such as infrared or ultrasonic, to determine its distance from the wall. No physical contact with the wall is needed. In a typical noncontact system, two sensors are used to judge when the robot is parallel to the wall (see Fig. 33-7b). Noncontact, passive sensor. The robot uses passive sensors, such as linear Hall effect switches, to judge distance from a specially prepared wall (Fig. 33-7c). In the case of Hall effect switches, you could outfit the baseboard or wall with an electrical wire through which a low-voltage alternating current is fed. When the robot is in the proximity of the switches the sensors will pick up the induced magnetic field provided by the alternating current. Or, if the baseboard is metal, the Hall effect sensor (when rigged with a small magnet on its opposite side) could detect proximity to a wall.
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FIGURE 33-7 Ways to follow the wall include: a. Contact switch; b. noncontact active sensor (such as infrared); c. noncontact passive sensor (e.g., Hall effect sensor and magnetic, electromagnetic, or ferrous metal wall/baseboard); and d. soft contact using pliable material such as foam rollers.
33.3 WALL FOLLOWING
Soft contact. The robot uses mechanical means to detect contact with the wall, but the contact is softened by using pliable materials. For example, you can use a lightweight foam wheel as a wall roller, as shown in Fig. 33-7d. The benefit of soft contact is that mechanical failure is reduced or eliminated because the contact with the wall is made through an elastic or pliable medium.
In all cases, upon encountering a wall the robot goes into a controlled program phase to follow the wall in order to get to its destination. In a simple contact system, the robot may back up a short moment after touching the wall, then swing in a long arc toward the wall again. This process is repeated, and the net effect is that the robot follows the wall. With the other methods, the preferred approach is for the robot to maintain proper distance from the wall. Only when proximity to the wall is lost does the robot go into a find wall mode. This entails arcing the robot toward the anticipated direction of the wall. When contact is made, the robot alters course slightly and starts a new arc. A typical pattern of movement is shown in Fig. 33-8.
33.3.2 ULTRASONIC WALL FOLLOWING
A simple ultrasonic wall follower can use two ultrasonic transmitter/receiver pairs. Each transmitter and receiver is mounted several inches apart to avoid cross-talk. Two transmitter/ receiver pairs are used to help the robot travel parallel to the wall. Suitable ultrasonic transmitter and receiver circuits are detailed in 30, Object Detection. Because the robot will likely be close to the wall (within a few inches), you will want to drive the transmitters at very low power and use only moderate amplification, if any, for the receiver. You can drive the transmitters at very low power by reducing the voltage to the transmitter.
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