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FIGURE 33-10 The relative number of counts from each encoder of the typical two-wheeled robot can be used to indicate deviation in travel. If an encoder shows that one wheel turned a fewer number of times than the other wheel, then it can be assumed the robot did not travel in a straight line.
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tance per pulse. For example, if there are 1055 pulses in the accumulator-counter, and if each pulse represents 0.294 in of travel, then the robot has moved 310.17 in straight forward. In a perfect world, robots would not need anything more than a single odometer to determine exactly where they were at any given time. Unfortunately, robots live and work in a world that is far from perfect; as a result, their odometers are far from accurate. Over a 20- to 30-ft range, for example, it s not uncommon for the average odometer to misrepresent the position of the robot by as much as half a foot or more! Why the discrepancy First and foremost: wheels slip. As a wheel turns, it is bound to slip, especially if the surface is hard and smooth, like a kitchen floor. Wheels slip even more when they turn. The wheel encoder may register a certain number of pulses, but because of slip the actual distance of travel will be less. Certain robot drive designs are more prone to error than others. Robots with tracks are steered using slip lots of it. The encoders will register pulses, but the robot will not actually be moving in proportion. There are less subtle reasons for odometry error. If you re even a hundredth of an inch off when measuring the diameter of the wheel, the error will be compounded over long distances. If the robot is equipped with soft or pneumatic wheels, the weight of the robot can deform the wheels, thereby changing their effective diameter. Because of odometry errors, it is necessary to combine it with other navigation techniques, such as active beacons, distance mapping, or landmark recognition. All three are detailed later in this chapter.
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Besides the stars, the magnetic compass has served as humankind s principal navigation aid over long distances. You know how it works: a needle points to the magnetic North Pole of the earth. Once you know which way is north, you can more easily reorient yourself in your travels.
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33.5 COMPASS BEARINGS
Robots can use compasses as well, and a number of electronic and electromechanical compasses are available for use in hobby robots. One of the least expensive is the Dinsmore 1490, from Dinsmore Instrument Co. The 1490 looks like an overfed transistor, with 12 leads protruding from its underside. The leads are in four groups of three; each group represents a major compass heading: north, south, east, and west. The three leads in each group are for power, ground, and signal. A Dinsmore 1490, mounted on a circuit board, is shown in Fig. 33-11. The 1490 provides eight directions of heading information (N, S, E, W, SE, SW, NE, NW) by measuring the earth s magnetic field. It does this by using miniature Hall effect sensors and a rotating compass needle (similar to ordinary compasses). The sensor is said to be internally designed to respond to directional changes much like a liquid-filled compass. It turns to the indicated direction from a 90 displacement in approximately 2.5 s. The manufacturer s specification sheet claims that the unit can operate with up to 12 degrees of tilt with acceptable error, but it is important to note that any tilting from center will cause a corresponding loss in accuracy. Fig. 33-12 shows the circuit diagram for the 1490, which uses four inputs to a computer or microcontroller. Note the use of pull-up resistors. With this setup, your robot can determine its orientation with an accuracy of about 45 degrees (less if the 1490 compass is tilted). Dinsmore also makes an analog-output compass that exhibits better accuracy. You could also consider the Vector 2X and 2XG. These units use magneto-inductive sen-
FIGURE 33-11 The Dinsmore 1490 digital compass provides simple bearings for a robot. The sensor is accurate to about 45 degrees.
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