vb.net read barcode from camera SINGLE- AND DUAL-AXIS SENSING in Software

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35.2.3 SINGLE- AND DUAL-AXIS SENSING
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The basic accelerometer is single axis, meaning it can detect a change in acceleration (or gravity) in one axis only, as shown in Fig. 35-2. While this is moderately restrictive, you can still use such a device to create a capable and accurate tilt-and-motion sensor for your robot. The first accelerometer project described in this chapter uses such a single-axis device. A dual-axis accelerometer detects changes in acceleration and gravity in both the x and y planes (see Fig. 35-2). If the sensor is mounted vertically so that the y axis points straight up and down the y axis detects up and down changes, and the x axis will detect side-toside motion. Conversely, if the sensor is mounted horizontally, the y axis detects motion forward and backward, and the x axis detects motion from side to side.
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35.2.4 THE ANALOG DEVICES ADXL ACCELEROMETER FAMILY
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Analog Devices is a semiconductor maker primarily for industrial- and military-grade operational amplifiers, digital-to-analog and analog-to-digital converters, and motion control products. One of their key product lines is accelerometers, and for them they use a patented
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EXPERIMENTING WITH TILT AND GRAVITY SENSORS
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Single-Axis
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Dual-Axis
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FIGURE 35-2 a. A single-axis accelerometer; b. a dual-axis accelerometer.
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fabrication process to create a series of near-microscopic mechanical beams. This micromachining involves etching material out of a substrate. During acceleration, the beam is distended along its length. This distention changes the capacitance in nearby plates. This change in capacitance is correlated as acceleration. A thorough discussion of the theory of operation behind the ADXL family of accelerometers is beyond the scope of this chapter, but you can obtain much more on the subject directly from the manufacturer. Check the Analog Devices web site at www.analog.com. In addition to the mechanical portions of the accelerometer, all the basic interface circuitry is part of the device. In fact, when looking at one of the ADXL accelerometers, you d think it was just an integrated circuit of some kind. Because the basic circuitry is included as part of the accelerometer, only a minimum number of external parts are needed.
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35.3 Constructing a Dual-Axis Accelerometer Robotic Sensor
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Analog Devices makes a low-cost line of accelerometers specifically designed for consumer products. Their ADXL202 is a dual-axis device with a 2-g sensitivity (if you need more g s, check out the ADXL210, which is rated at 10 g s). Along with being cheaper to buy, the ADXL202 has a simplified digital output that requires very little hardware interfacing. Instead of a linear voltage (as is used in other accelerometers), the output is purely digital. As acceleration changes, the timing of the pulses at the output of the ADXL202 chip changes. This change can be readily determined by a PC or microcontroller, using simple software (see the example for the BASIC Stamp 2 later in the chapter). The ADXL202 is a surface-mount component. By a long measure, the ready-made ADXL202 evaluation board is the easiest way to use this device. It comes on a small postage-stamp carrier, which can be directly soldered to the BASIC Stamp or other microcontroller.
35.3 CONSTRUCTING A DUAL-AXIS ACCELEROMETER ROBOTIC SENSOR
35.3.1 WIRING DIAGRAM
The basic hookup diagram for the ADXL202 is shown in Fig. 35-3 with the parts list in Table 35-1. Note that except for two filter capacitors and a single resistor, there are no external components. I have specified a rather low bandwidth of 10 Hz for the device. According to the ADXL202 data sheet, the value of C1 and C2 for this bandwidth should be 0.47 F. Resistor R1 sets the value of the timing pulse used for the output of the x and y axes of the accelerometer chip. The 620k resistor produces the relatively modest timing pulse of 5 ms; according to the data sheet this requires a nominal value of about 625K for R1. Note that the exact timing of the pulse is not critical, as any variation will be accounted for in the software. You will want to select a higher or lower timing pulse based on the capabilities of the PC or microcontroller you are using and the resolution you desire.
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