vb.net read barcode from camera UNDERSTANDING AND USING ROBOT BEHAVIORS in Software

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37.3 UNDERSTANDING AND USING ROBOT BEHAVIORS
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behavior principles. See Appendix A, Further Reading, for books that contain useful information on behavior-based robotics.
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37.3.1 WHEN A BEHAVIOR IS JUST A SIMPLE ACTION
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Since the introduction of behavior-based robotics, numerous writers have applied the term behavior to cover a wide variety of things to the point that everything a robot does becomes a behavior. The result is that robot builders can become convinced their creations are really exhibiting human- or animal-like reactions, when all they are doing is carrying out basic instructions from a computer or simple electronic circuit. Delusions aside, this has the larger effect of distracting you from focusing on other useful approaches for dealing with robots. To help explain how this is a problem, consider this analogy: suppose you see a magic show so many times that you end up believing the disappearing lady is really gone. Not so. It s an optical and psychological trick every time. Sometimes a robot displays a simple action as the result of rudimentary programming, and by calling everything it does a behavior we lose a clearer view of how the machine is really operating. The following sections contain a brief discourse on behavior-based robotics.
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37.3.2 WALL FOLLOWING: A COMMON BEHAVIOR
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One common example of behavior-based robotics is the wall follower, which is typically a robot that always turns in an arc, waiting to hit a wall. A sensor on the front of the robot detects the wall collision. When the sensor is triggered, the robot will turn away from the wall some amount and repeat the whole process over again. This is a perfect example of how the term behavior has been misplaced: the true behavior of the robot is not to follow a wall but simply to turn in circles until it hits something. When a collision occurs, the robot turns to clear the obstacle and then continues to turn in a circle once again. In the absence of the wall a reasonable change in environment the robot would not exhibit its namesake behavior. Or conversely, if there were additional objects in the room, the robot would treat them as walls, too. In that case, the robot might be considered useless, misprogrammed, or worse. If wall following is not a true behavior, then what is it There really is no industrystandard term for this type of action. The important thing to remember is that a true behavior is independent, or nearly so, of the robot s typical physical environment. That s rule number one to keep in mind. Note that environment is not the same as a condition. A condition is a light shining on the robot that it might move toward or away from; an environment is a room or other area that may or may not have certain attributes. Conditions contribute to the function of the robot, just like batteries or other electric power contributes to the robot s ability to move its motors. Conversely, environments can be ever changing and in many ways unmanageable. Environments consist of physical parameters under which the robot may or may not operate at any given time. Robotic behaviors are most useful when they encapsulate multiple variables, particularly those that are in response to external input (senses). This is rule number two of true behavior-based robotics. The more the robot is able to integrate and differentiate between different inputs (senses), irrespective of environment and still carry out its proper programming the more it can demonstrate its true behaviors.
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ROBOT TASKS, OPERATIONS, AND BEHAVIORS
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37.3.3 THE WALT DISNEY EFFECT
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It is tempting to endow robots with human- or animal-like emotions and traits, such as hunger (battery power) or affinity/love (a beacon or an operator clicking a clicker). But in my opinion these aren t behaviors at all. They are anthropomorphic qualities that merely appear to result in a human-type response simply because we want them to. In other words, it s completely made up. Imagine this in the extreme: is a robot suicidal if it has a tendency to drive off the workbench and break as it hits the floor Or is it that your workbench is too small and crowded, and your concrete floor is too hard Emotions such as love are extremely complex; as a robot builder, it s easy to get confused about what your creation can really do and feel. In his seminal book Vehicles, Valentino Braitenberg presents a study of synthetic psychology on which fictional vehicles demonstrate certain behavioral traits. For example, Braitenberg s Vehicle 2 has two motors and two sensors (say, light sensors). By connecting the sensors to the motors in different ways the robot is said to exhibit emotions, or at the least actions we humans may interpret as quasi-intelligent or human-like emotional responses. In one configuration, the robot may steer toward the light source, exhibiting love. In another configuration, the robot may steer away, exhibiting fear. Obviously, the robot is feeling neither of these emotions, nor does Braitenberg suggest this. Instead, he gives us vehicles that are fictional representations of human-like traits. It s important not to get caught up in Disneyesque anthropomorphism. A good portion of behavior-based robotics centers around human interpretation of the robot s mechanical actions. We interpret those actions as intelligent, or even as cognition. This is valid up to a point, but consider that only we ourselves experience our own intelligence and cognition (that is, we are self-aware); a robot does not. Human-like machine intelligence and emotions are in the eye of a human beholder, not in the brain of the robot. This, however, may change in the future as new computing models are discovered, invented, and explored.
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