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38.3 GETTING A PROGRAM S ATTENTION VIA HARDWARE
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ferent I/O requirements must be cataloged and matched to I/O pins with the required capabilities. This task is not difficult, but forgetting to do it can cause a great deal of stress and rebuilding when you are finishing the robot later. When you are first starting out, invest in microcontrollers that have quite a few I/O pins available; larger chips can have 30 or so I/O pins that can be used for a variety of different tasks. These chips will be somewhat more expensive and physically larger than those that have a dozen or so I/O pins, but the extra I/O pins will be useful when you want to add another feature to your robot, LEDs, or a speaker to indicate different input conditions from the robot s sensors that will be important for either debugging the application code or better understanding the input data being received by the controller.
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38.2.2 INTERNAL FEATURES
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Along with I/O pins, most controllers have a number of other features that you will want to take advantage of in your application design. Timers, analog-to-digital converters, voltage comparators, and serial interfaces are all resources that must be managed like I/O pins as they are available only at specific pins and addresses within the devices. The BASIC Stamp 2, which has been used for demonstrating different functions, is unusual in the flexibility given to each pin. They can be used for digital I/O, serial I/O, PWM inputs and outputs, limited serial interfaces and so on, which are usually devoted to specific pins in a traditional controller. For this reason, you may want to use only a controller like a BS2 because you are not as constrained as you would be with other controllers and chips. The best way to manage limited internal features and resources is to treat them as central resources available for the complete robot application rather than only specific functions. One of the best ways to ensure that the resources are available to all the functions in the robot is to continually execute the internal functions and make the results available to all the output procedures as global variables that can have status flags and values read by the output functions as inputs, just like digital I/O pins or register values to prevent any one function from affecting the value for the other output functions which also rely on the resource s data.
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38.3 Getting a Program s Attention Via Hardware
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Even in systems that lack multitasking capability it s still possible to write a robot control program that doesn t include a repeating loop that constantly scans (polls) the condition of sensors and other input. Two common ways of dealing with unpredictable external events are using a timer (software) interrupt or a hardware (physical connection) interrupt. When using interrupts, they should set flags or other variable values to indicate that the interrupt has been requested and processed. During the main loop of the control program, the flags and variables should be used as inputs, just like object, sound, speed, and other standard sensors.
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38.3.1 TIMER INTERRUPT
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A timer built into the computer or microcontroller runs in the background. At predefined intervals most commonly when the timer overflows its count the timer requests the attention of the microprocessor, which in turn temporarily suspends the main program, if it can spare the cycles. The microprocessor runs a special timer interrupt handler subroutine, which in the case of a task-based robot would poll the various sensors and other input looking for possible error modes. (Think of the timer as a heartbeat; at every beat the microprocessor pauses to do something special.) If no error is found, the microprocessor resumes the main program. If an error is found, the microprocessor runs the relevant section in code that deals with the error. Timer interrupts can occur hundreds of times each second. That may seem like a lot in human terms, but it can be trivial to a microprocessor running at several million cycles per second.
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