vb.net barcode scanner source code VARIABLE RESISTORS in Software

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5.4 VARIABLE RESISTORS
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TABLE 5-2 COLOR Black Brown Red Orange Yellow Green Blue Violet Gray White Gold Silver
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Resistor Band Values BAND COLOR VALUE 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 N/A N/A TOLERANCE N/A 1% 2% N/A N/A 0.5% 0.25% 0.1% 0.05% N/A 5% 10%
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ing, start at a high range and work down. Be sure you don t touch the test leads or the leads of the resistor; if you do, you ll add the natural resistance of your own body to the reading. Resistors are also rated by their wattage. The wattage of a resistor indicates the amount of power it can safely dissipate. Resistors used in high-load applications, like motor control, require higher wattages than those used in low-current applications. The majority of resistors you ll use for hobby electronics will be rated at 1 4 or even 1 8 of a watt. The wattage of a resistor is not marked on the body of the component; instead, you must infer it from the size of the resistor.
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5.4 Variable Resistors
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Variable resistors let you dial in a specific resistance. The actual range of resistance is determined by the upward value of the potentiometer. Potentiometers are thus marked with this upward value, such as 10K, 50K, 100K, 1M, and so forth. For example, a 50K potentiometer will let you dial in any resistance from 0 to 50,000 ohms. Note that the range is approximate only. Potentiometers are of either the dial or slide type, as shown in Fig. 5-8. The dial type is the most familiar and is used in such applications as television volume controls and electric blanket thermostat controls. The rotation of the dial is nearly 360 , depending on which potentiometer you use. In one extreme, the resistance through the potentiometer (or pot) is zero; in the other extreme, the resistance is the maximum value of the component.
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FIGURE 5-8 Potentiometers are variable resistors. You ll find them in rotary or slide versions; rotary potentiometers are the easiest to use in hobby circuits.
Some projects require precision potentiometers. These are referred to as multiturn pots or trimmers. Instead of turning the dial one complete rotation to change the resistance from, say, 0 to 10,000 ohms, a multiturn pot requires you to rotate the knob 3, 5, 10, even 15 times to span the same range. Most are designed to be mounted directly on the printed circuit board. If you have to adjust them, you will need a screwdriver or plastic tool.
5.5 Capacitors
After resistors, capacitors are the second most common component found in the average electronic project. Capacitors serve many purposes. They can be used to remove traces of transient (changing) current ripple in a power supply, to delay the action of some portion of the circuit, or to perform an integration or differentiation of a repeating signal. All these applications depend on the ability of the capacitor to hold an electrical charge for a predetermined time. Capacitors come in many more sizes, shapes, and varieties than resistors, though only a small handful are truly common. However, most capacitors are made of the same basic stuff: a pair of conductive elements separated by an insulating dielectric (see Fig. 5-9). This dielectric can be composed of many materials, including air (in the case of a variable capacitor, as detailed in the next section), paper, epoxy, plastic, and even oil. Most capacitors
Electrical Charge between Plates Capacitor Plates
Schematic Symbol for a Capacitor
FIGURE 5-9 Capacitors store an electrical charge for a limited time. Along with the resistor, they are critical to the proper functioning of many electronic circuits.
5.5 CAPACITORS
Unpolarized (Ceramic Disk or Polyester)
Tantalum (Polarized)
Capacitor Value/Rating
Electrolytic (Polarized)
Capacitor Value/Rating
Negative Lead (Cathode)
Capacitor Value Stamp (See Text)
Positive Lead (Anode)
FIGURE 5-10 Different capacitor appearance and markings. Note that in some packages, the positive lead (anode) is indicated while in others it is the negative lead (cathode).
actually have many layers of conducting elements and dielectric. When you select a capacitor for a particular job, you must generally also indicate the type, such as ceramic, mica, or Mylar. Capacitors are rated by their capacitance, in farads, and by the breakdown voltage of their dielectric. The farad is a rather large unit of measurement, so the bulk of capacitors available today are rated in microfarads, or a millionth of a farad. An even smaller rating is the picofarad, or a millionth of a millionth of a farad. The micro in the term microfarad is most often represented by the Greek mu ( ) character, as in 10 F. The picofarad is simply shortened to pF. The voltage rating is the highest voltage the capacitor can withstand before the dielectric layers in the component are damaged. For the most part, capacitors are classified by the dielectric material they use. The most common dielectric materials are aluminum electrolytic, tantalum electrolytic, ceramic, mica, polypropylene, polyester (or Mylar), paper, and polystyrene. The dielectric material used in a capacitor partly determines which applications it should be used for. The larger electrolytic capacitors, which use an aluminum electrolyte, are suited for such chores as power supply filtering, where large values are needed. The values for many capacitors are printed directly on the component. This is especially true with the larger aluminum electrolytic, where the large size of the capacitor provides ample room for printing the capacitance and voltage. Smaller capacitors, such as 0.1 or 0.01 F mica disc capacitors, use a common three-digit marking system to denote capacitance and tolerance. The numbering system is easy to use, if you remember it s based on picofarads, not microfarads. A number such as 104 means 10, followed by four zeros, as in 100,000
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