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5.7 Transistors
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Transistors were designed as an alternative to the old vacuum tube, and they are used in similar applications, either to amplify a signal by providing a current control or to switch a signal on and off. There are several thousand different transistors available. Besides amplifying or switching a current, transistors are divided into two broad categories:
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Signal. These transistors are used with relatively low-current circuits, like radios, telephones, and most other hobby electronics projects. Power. These transistors are used with high-current circuits, like motor drivers and power supplies.
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You can usually tell the difference between the two merely by size. The signal transistor is rarely larger than a pea and uses slender wire leads. The power transistor uses a large metal case to help dissipate heat, and heavy spokelike leads. Transistors are identified by a unique code, such as 2N2222 or MPS6519. Refer to a data book to ascertain the characteristics and ratings of the particular transistor you are interested in. Transistors are rated by a number of criteria, which are far too extensive for the scope of this book. These ratings include collector-to-base voltage, collector-toe-mitter voltage, maximum collector current, maximum device dissipation, and maximum operating frequency. None of these ratings are printed directly on the transistor. Signal transistors are available in either plastic or metal cases. The plastic kind is suitable for most uses, but some precision applications require the metal variety. Transistors that use metal cases (or cans) are less susceptible to stray radio frequency interference and they also dissipate heat more readily.
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You will probably be using NPN (Fig. 5-12) and PNP (Fig. 5-13) bipolar transistors. These transistors are turned on and off by a control current passing through the base. The current that can pass through the collector is the product of the base current and the constant hFE, which is unique to each transistor. Bipolar transistors can control the operation and direction of DC motors using fairly simple circuits. Fig. 5-14 shows a simple circuit that will turn a motor on and off using a single NPN bipolar transistor and a diode. When the current passing through coils of a magnetic device changes, the voltage across the device also changes, often in the form of a large spike called kickback. These spikes can be a hundred volts or so and can very easily damage the electronic devices they are connected to. By placing a diode across the motor as shown in Fig. 5-15, the spikes produced when the motor is shut off will be shunted through the diode and will not pass along high voltages to the rest of the electronics in the circuit. The circuit shown in Fig. 5-15 is known as an H-bridge because without the shunt diodes the circuit looks like the letter H. This circuit allows current to pass in either direction through a motor, allowing it to turn in either direction. The motor turns when one of the two connections is made to +V. Both connections can never be connected to +V as this will turn on all the transistors, providing a very low resistance path for current from +V, potentially burning out the driver transistors. Along with bipolar transistors, which are controlled by current, there are a number of other transistors, some of which are controlled by voltage. For example, the MOSFET (for metal-oxide semiconductor field-effect transistor) is often used in circuits that demand high
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Collector ic = ib x hFE
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ib Base
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E B C
ie = ib + i c Emitter Schematic Symbol
FIGURE 5-12 The NPN bipolar transistor collector current is controlled by current injected into the base.
5.7 TRANSISTORS
Emitter ie = ib + i c ib Base
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E B C
ic = ib x hFE Collector Schematic Symbol
FIGURE 5-13 The PNP bipolar transistor collector current is controlled by current drawn from the base.
Motor
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