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6.4.4 OSCILLOSCOPE
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An oscilloscope is a pricey tool, but for performing serious work or understanding how the circuitry behaves in your robot, it is invaluable and will save you hours of frustration. Other test equipment will do some of the things you can do with a scope, but oscilloscopes do it all in one box and generally with greater precision. Among the many applications of an oscilloscope, you can do the following:
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Test DC or AC voltage levels Analyze the waveforms of digital and analog circuits Determine the operating frequency of digital, analog, and RF circuits Test logic levels Visually check the timing of a circuit to see if things are happening in the correct order and at the prescribed time intervals.
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The most common application used to demonstrate the operation of an oscilloscope is converting sound waves into a visual display by passing the output of a microphone into
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6.4 ELECTRONIC TOOLS
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an oscilloscope. This application, while very appealing, does not demonstrate any of the important features of an oscilloscope nor is it representative of the kind of signals that you will probe with it. When you are looking at buying an oscilloscope, you should consider the different features and functions listed in the following. The resolution of the scope reveals its sensitivity and accuracy. On an oscilloscope, the X (horizontal) axis displays time, and the Y (vertical) axis displays voltage. These values can be measured by the marks, or graticules, on the oscilloscope display. To change the sensitivity, there is usually a knob on the oscilloscope that will make the time between each set of markings larger or smaller. The value between the graticule markings is either displayed on the screen itself electronically or marked on the oscilloscope by the adjustment knob (Fig. 6-4). There are two different types of oscilloscopes. The analog oscilloscope passes the incoming signal directly from the input probes to the CRT display without any processing. Rather than displaying the signal as it comes in, there is normally a trigger circuit, which starts the display process when the input voltage reaches a specific point. Analog oscilloscopes are best suited for repeating waveforms; they can be used to measure their peak to peak voltages, periods, and timing differences relative to other signals. The digital storage oscilloscope (DSO) converts the analog voltage to a digital value and then displays it on a computer-like screen. By converting the analog input to digital, the waveform can be saved and displayed after a specific event (also known as the trigger, as in the analog oscilloscope) or processed in some way. Whereas the peak to peak voltage and the waveform s period is measured from the screen in an analog oscilloscope, most digital storage oscilloscopes have the ability to calculate these (and other) values for you. Digital storage oscilloscopes can be very small and flexible; there are a number of products available that connect directly to a PC and avoid the bulk and cost of a display all together. It
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FIGURE 6-4 Digital storage oscilloscope display showing the changing voltage level on the two pins used in the BS2 s shiftout statement.
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should be noted that the digital storage oscilloscope is capable of displaying the same repeating waveforms as an analog oscilloscope. One of the most important specifications of an oscilloscope is its bandwidth, which is the maximum frequency signal that can be observed accurately. For example, a 20 MHz oscilloscope can accurately display and measure a 20 MHz sine wave. The problem with most signals is that they are not perfect sine waves; they usually consist of much higher frequency harmonics, which make up the signal. To accurately display an arbitrary waveform at a specific frequency, the bandwidth must be significantly higher than the frequency itself; five times the required bandwidth is the minimum that you should settle for, with 10 times being a better value. So, if in your circuit, you have a 20 MHz clock, to accurately observe the signal the oscilloscope s bandwidth should be 100 MHz or more. Along with the bandwidth measurement in a digital storage oscilloscope, there is also the sampling rate of the incoming analog signal. The bandwidth measurement of a digital storage oscilloscope is still relevant; like the analog oscilloscope it specifies the maximum signal frequency that can be input without the internal electronics of the digital storage oscilloscope distorting it. The sampling rate is the number of times per second that the oscilloscope converts the analog signal to a digital value. Most digital storage oscilloscopes will sample at 10 to 50 times the bandwidth and the sampling measurement is in units of samples per second. Finally, the oscilloscope s trigger is an important feature that many people do not understand how to use properly. As previously noted, the trigger is set to a specific voltage to start displaying (or recording in the case of a digital storage oscilloscope) the incoming analog voltage signal. The trigger allows signals to be displayed without jitter so that the incoming waveform will be displayed as a steady waveform, instead of one that jumps back and forth or appears as a steady blur without any defined start point. The trigger on most oscilloscopes can start the oscilloscope when the signal goes from high to low at a specific voltage level, or from low to high. Over the years, oscilloscopes have improved dramatically, with many added features and capabilities. Among the most useful features is a delayed sweep, which is helpful when you are analyzing a small portion of a long, complex signal. This feature is not something that you will be comfortable using initially, but as you gain experience with the oscilloscope and debugging you will find that it is an invaluable feature for finding specific problems or observing how the circuitry works after a specific trigger has been executed. The probes used with oscilloscopes are not just wires with clips on the end of them. To be effective, the better scope probes use low-capacitance/low-resistance shielded wire and a capacitive-compensated tip. These ensure better accuracy. Most scope probes are passive, meaning they employ a simple circuit of capacitors and resistors to compensate for the effects of capacitive and resistive loading. Many passive probes can be switched between 1X and 10X. At the 1X setting, the probe passes the signal without attenuation (weakening). At the 10X setting, the probe reduces the signal strength by 10 times. This allows you to test a signal that might otherwise overload the scope s circuits. Active probes use operational amplifiers or other powered circuitry to correct for the effects of capacitive and resistive loading as well as to vary the attenuation of the signal. Table 6-1 shows the typical specifications of passive and active oscilloscope probes.
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