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12.2 Brains from Computers and Microcontrollers
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The biggest downside of making robot controls from discrete components is the work required to change the hardwired brains to change the behavior of the robot. You either need to change the wires around or add and remove components. Using an experimenter s breadboard makes it easier to try out different designs simply by plugging components and wiring into the board. But this soon becomes tiresome and can lead to errors because parts can work loose from the board. You can rewire a robot controlled by a computer simply by changing the software running on the computer. For example, if your robot has two light sensors and two motors, you don t need to do much more than change a few lines of programming code to make the robot come toward a light source, rather than move away from it. No changes in hardware
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12.3 TYPES OF COMPUTERS FOR ROBOTS
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are required. This type of programming functionality is demonstrated in 15 with a Parallax BASIC Stamp 2 and some of the example applications that it can run.
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12.3 Types of Computers for Robots
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An almost endless variety of computers can be used as a robot s brain. The most common types that are used are:
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Microcontroller. These are programmed either in assembly language or a high-level language such as BASIC or C. There are literally hundreds of different microcontrollers with a plethora of different interfacing capabilities that you can choose from to control your robot. Personal Digital Assistant. An old Palm Pilot provides a lot of processing power in a fairly small space with a number of features that make it very attractive for use as a robot controller. It can be difficult to interface with. Single-board computer. A few years ago, complete computer systems built on a PCB were the preferred method of controlling robots. These systems are still used but are much less popular due to the availability of low-cost PC motherboards and more powerful, easy to use microcontrollers. Personal computer motherboards and laptops. Very small form factor PC motherboards and laptops are common controllers for larger robots. These controllers can be programmed using standard development tools and commercial, digital I/O add-ons for the interfaces needed for the different robot functions.
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12.3.1 MICROCONTROLLERS
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Microcontrollers are the preferred method for endowing a robot with smarts. The reasons for this include their low costs, simple power requirements (usually 2.5 to 5 V), and ability of most to be programmed using software and a simple hardware interface on your PC. Once programmed, the microcontroller is disconnected from the PC and operates on its own. Microcontrollers can either be downloaded with a program that provides all the functions required of it or execute a tokenized program, which provides a set of basic functions for the application and the software already built into the microcontroller handling the various interfaces. Virtually all microcontrollers can be used as either device; the reason for choosing one over the other really comes down to cost, your experience and skills, available features, and ease of use. You shouldn t be scared at the idea of having to come up with all the code that executes within a microcontroller. If you are familiar with a PC, you know that there are several megabytes of code for the BIOS (basic input/output system) as well as several hundred megabytes of code devoted to the operating system. Going by this standard, it will seem like developing a complete application for a microcontroller is a daunting task. In reality, the operation of the code within the microcontroller is quite simple, and other than requiring a few configuration commands, the software is quite straightforward. The advantage of using a microcontroller that requires a complete application is cost; a microcontroller suitable for
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