vb.net barcode reader tutorial AN OVERVIEW OF ROBOT BRAINS in Software

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AN OVERVIEW OF ROBOT BRAINS
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would have to either disconnect the disk drive or eject the CD and update its contents it s a bit more work but still very doable. Storing the operating system and application on a USB thumb drive will eliminate the extra power required by a spinning hard disk or CD/DVD drive, as well as avoid the potential reliability issues of rotating devices running on an electrically noisy and vibrating robot. There are numerous web sites devoted to providing information required to set up a thumb drive as a bootable device along with installing an operating system onto it. Once you have decided where to put the operating system and application code you can decide which operating system you are most comfortable with. All major operating systems can be used (Microsoft Windows (all flavors), MS-DOS, and Linux) after the graphical user interface has been removed from it. There are no significant reasons for choosing one operating system over another; the important points will be which ones you are most comfortable with and which ones have the software development tools that you have and are proficient working with. Regardless of the operating system used, there are a variety of open source tools that you can download for application development. These can be found using a quick Google search or by looking at www.cygwin.com, which is an X-Windows-based environment for Microsoft Windows that will allow you to simulate the Linux environment and develop and debug applications for any of the three major operating systems. Even if you are unfamiliar with Linux or Unix operating environments and do not consider yourself very technical, it is surprisingly easy to download and work with these tools.
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12.4 Inputs and Outputs
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The architecture of robots requires inputs, for such things as mode setting or sensors, as well as outputs, for things like motor control or speech. The basic input and output of a computer or microcontroller is a two-state binary voltage level (off and on), usually 0 and 5 V. For example, to place an output of a computer or microcontroller to high, the voltage on that output is brought, under software control, to +5 V. In addition to standard low/high inputs and outputs, there are several other forms of I/O found on single-board computers and microcontrollers. The more common are listed in the following sections, organized by type. Several of these are discussed in more detail later in the book.
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12.4.1 SERIAL COMMUNICATIONS
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The most common type of computer interfacing is known as serial, in which multiple bits are sent as a series of bits over time on a single wire. There are a number of different types of serial communications protocols as shown in Fig. 12-3, with asynchronous, synchronous, and Manchester encoding. Each methodology is optimized for different situations. The two most likely communications methods that you will have to work with when interfacing a robot controller to I/O devices is synchronous serial communications, which consists of a data line and a clock line as shown in Fig. 12-4. There are several different protocols used for synchronous serial communications, but they all have one characteristic in
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12.4 INPUTS AND OUTPUTS
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Start Bit
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B2 B3 B4 B5 B6 B7
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Asynchronous
Idle , No Data Being Sent
Data Bits
Optional Error Detection Bit
B4 B5 B6 B7
Synchronous
Data Clock
Data Saved on Rising Edge of Clock Signal
Manchester Encoding
Leader
Bit Timing Synch Pulse
FIGURE 12-3 The different serial interfaces used in robots.
common: the bit on the data line is saved in the receiver when the clock transitions from high to low or low to high. The timing of the clock line does not have to be consistent and in some synchronous serial protocols, there can be multiple devices on the clock and data lines and part of the protocol is used to determine which device is active at any given time. The three most common types of synchronous serial communication methodologies are:
I2C (inter-integrated circuit). This is a two-wire serial network protocol created by Philips to allow integrated circuits to communicate with one another. With I2C you can install two or more microcontrollers in a robot and have them communicate with one another. One I2C-equipped microcontroller may be the master, while the others are slaves and used for special tasks, such as interrogating sensors or operating the motors. Microwire. This is a serial synchronous communications protocol developed by National Semiconductor products. Most Microwire-compatible components are used for interfacing with microcontroller or microprocessor support electronics, such as memory and analog-to-digital converters. SPI (serial peripheral interface). This is a standard used by Motorola and others to communicate between devices. Like Microwire, SPI is most often used to interface with
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