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Sent Data Clock Received Data
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FIGURE 12-4 Close-up detail showing how synchronous serial data is only picked up on the clock edge.
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AN OVERVIEW OF ROBOT BRAINS
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microcontroller or microprocessor support electronics, especially outboard EEPROM memory.
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12.4.2 ASYNCHRONOUS SERIAL COMMUNICATIONS (FROM SERIAL COMMUNICATIONS)
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Asynchronous serial communications uses a single wire to send a packet that consists of a number of bits, each the same length. The most popular data protocol for asynchronous serial communications is known as non-return to zero (NRZ) and consists of the first bit, the Start Bit is low and is used by the receiver to identify the middle of each bit of the incoming data stream for the most accurate reading as shown in Fig. 12-5. There can be any number of data bits, but for most communications, eight bits, allowing the transmission of a byte, are used. The following data bits have the same period and are read as they are received. The stop bit is a high value (the non-return to zero that resets the data line to a high value so the next start bit will be detected by the receiver) that provides a set amount of time for the sender and receiver to prepare for the next data packet. An error detection bit can be placed at the end of the data bits, but this is rarely done in modern asynchronous serial communications. The most popular form of asynchronous serial communications and one that you have probably heard of is commonly referred to as RS-232 (although more accurately known as EIA-232) and changes the normal TTL voltage levels of the serial data from 0 to +5 V to +12 (0) and 12 (1) V. There are a number of chips available that will make this voltage conversion simpler, most notably the Maxim MAX232, which generates the positive and negative voltages on the chip from the +5 V supply. Along with RS-232, RS-422, and RS-485
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Bit Read
Bit Read
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Overspeed Clock
FIGURE 12-5 The asynchronous serial data stream consists of a start bit, which goes low, followed by a number of data bits. The receiver finds the center of the low start bit and then uses this point to read the values of subsequent bits.
12.4 INPUTS AND OUTPUTS
are commonly used forms of asynchronous serial communications, and like RS-232, these standards can be implemented using commonly available chips. Sending and receiving RS-232 data in a computer system may seem like a chore, but it is actually simplified by the universal asynchronous receiver/transmitter (known by its acronym UART) that will send and receive NRZ asynchronous data automatically with the computer system writing to it to start a data send or polling the UART to determine if the last written data byte has been sent or if data has been received. Along with the send and receive data bits, there are a number of other lines that can be used with RS-232 for handshaking (system-to-system communications to indicate that data can be sent or received) but these lines are largely ignored in most modern communications. The UART generally will provide an interface to these bits as well.
12.4.3 DIGITAL-TO-ANALOG CONVERSION
There are two principle types of data conversion:
Analog-to-digital conversion (ADC) transforms analog (linear) voltage changes to binary (digital). ADCs can be outboard, contained in a single integrated circuit, or included as part of a microcontroller. Multiple inputs on an ADC chip allow a single IC to be used with several inputs (4-, 8-, and 16-input ADCs are common). Digital-to-analog conversion (DAC) transforms binary (digital) signals to analog (linear) voltage levels. DACs are not as commonly employed in robots; rather, they are commonly found on such devices as compact disc players. Comparator. This is an input that can compare a voltage level against a reference. The value of the input is then lower (0) or higher (1) than the reference. Comparators are most often used as simple analog-to-digital converters where high and low are represented by something other than the normal voltage levels (which can vary, depending on the kind of logic circuit used). For example, a comparator may trigger high at 2.7 v.
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