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Drawer Code 128 Code Set A in Software Sequencing and Programs

CHAPTER 7 Sequencing and Programs
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Fig. 7-11.
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One bit.
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Fig. 7-12.
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Four bits.
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In early computers, scientists resisted moving beyond our familiar digits 0 through 9. They used only three bits to get eight patterns. These days we use four bits, and this four-bit pattern is called a nibble. Two nibbles make a byte, two bytes a word, and two words a double-word or dword which contains 32 bits. Fortunately for you, the discussion of number systems and the intricate details of binary are beyond the scope of this book. The following box does give a brief introduction for the mathematically inclined.
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CHAPTER 7 Sequencing and Programs
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The binary system The numbers we use in daily life consist of ten digits. The digit 1 represents a single thing, such as a pebble. 2 is a pebble next to it. Add another pebble and you can represent their quantity with the symbol 3. The digits are just symbols that stand in for a particular quantity of pebbles. 0 is special since it represents no pebbles. Nine pebbles are the most we can represent with a single digit. What happens when we add another pebble We get the symbol sequence 10. Each digit s value is a ected by its position in the sequence. The right-most digit is in the ones place and is worth its face value. The next digit to the left is in the tens place, where a 1 stands for ten pebbles, 2 is twenty, and so forth. This system is known as the decimal system, or base-10. Each place value is ten times the place value to its right. To make the obvious complicated, the quantity represented by the sequence of digits is calculated by: n 1 X dp 10 p q10
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where: q10 is the quantity represented by the sequence of base-10 digits; n is the number of digits in the sequence; p is the place number of a digit, from zero at the right to n 1 at the left; d is the quantity represented by the digit at position p. Binary coding is exactly the same but with only two digits, 0 and 1: n 1 X q2 dp 2p
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So the binary sequence: 1101011 represents the quantity: 1 26 1 25 0 24 1 23 0 22 1 21 1 20 64 32 8 2 1 107 From Edwin Wise, Hands-On AI with Java (McGraw-Hill, 2004)
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CHAPTER 7 Sequencing and Programs
Table 7-1 Four-bit patterns and labeling Binary 0000 0001 0010 0011 0100 0101 0110 0111 1000 1001 1010 1011 1100 1101 1110 1111 Label 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 A B C D E F
Bit (Light) Pattern
* * * *
* * *
* * *
Z Z Z Z
ZZ ZZ
ZZZZ
For now you can take it as a matter of faith that patterns of on and o can be read as numbers. Each number stands for a speci c pattern of lights. Of course, in electronics we don t have to use LEDs and mechanical switches to represent bits. We can use more subtle components transistors for switches, pulses of electrons against a phosphor-covered tube for indicators (your TV or monitor), magnetic elds on spinning sheets of magnetized
CHAPTER 7 Sequencing and Programs
plastic ( oppy disks), pits burned into a metal lm laminated onto a plastic disk (CDs), and so forth. Or, going back a ways, holes in cards.
COMPUTER INSTRUCTIONS
Patterns of on and o can represent numbers. Likewise, numbers can represent other things. For example, the letter A can be represented by the number 0, B by 1, C by 2, and so on. In fact, A is normally represented by the number 65 and B by 66. Lower-case a is 97. This particular letter coding is part of the American Standard Code for Information Interchange, or ASCII, code. In ASCII, my name Edwin is the sequence of numbers 69, 100, 119, 105, 110. It s not much of a reach, then, to imagine that we can use numbers to represent commands to the computer. 0 could be, for example, halt. 1 might be load a value, and 2 store a value. It would be the subject of a whole book, if not more, to trace the progression from switches and lights to full computers. However, any digital computer you have ever used operates using a small handful of very simple operations, performed by electronic circuits, on values of one and zero. The holes punched into tape or cards were read by little switches. These switches created voltages inside the early computers, and these voltages were stored in circuits. Sometimes the circuits would cause the voltages to be converted into magnetic patterns on magnetic disks or tapes, other times they might trigger machinery to punch holes in some tape. The patterns of voltages, the patterns of on and o , ow through the computer s circuits to create di erent patterns of on and o . This all happens very quickly, since electrons act very quickly, and can seem like magic. But inside the computer there are only many tiny electronic switches, switching on and o .
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