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CHAPTER
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Semiconductors
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Introduction
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This is the last electronics chapter, and there is a lot of territory to cover in it. At this point you should have a sense of the forces at work in electronic circuits, and some ways that these forces can be manipulated. Most of the electronic components so far have been passive components. They sit in the circuit and react to the voltage and current owing through them. Capacitors store and release energy, as do inductors. Resistors resist. Passive circuits are then circuits made up of passive devices, such as the lters explored in 10. While passive components help us understand electronics, and are also vital to the proper functioning of circuits, the components that do must of the work in modern electronics are active. An active device can change its behavior dramatically based on its situation. Diodes are the simplest active device, acting like a one-way valve. The chapter explores the behavior of some active components, looking into their deepest secrets and seeing what makes them work.
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Semiconductors
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Let s revisit the concepts of conductor and insulator for a moment. In 4 we stated that a conductor is an element whose electrons can move freely and an insulator is one whose electrons are stuck tightly in place. Now we look at this electron motion just a little bit closer. Keep in mind that physics at this low level can get very tricky, so we make simplifying assumptions and gloss over a number of details. An atom, you recall, has a nucleus of protons and neutrons. This nucleus has a positive charge. Whizzing around that nucleus is a cloud of electrons, normally just enough to make the atom s electric charge neutral. Earlier, we hinted at the concept of orbital shells. The electrons are not free to orbit just anywhere, otherwise they would just spiral into the center and stick to the nucleus. Each electron has an energy level which could refer to how fast it is moving (but doesn t really), and these energy levels are almost digital in nature. An electron could have an energy of 1 or 2 but never 1.25. This discrete separation of energy levels is known as energy quanta, and quanta lead us into the realm of quantum physics. Each orbital shell is associated with a particular energy level. Only electrons with the correct amount of energy can live in a given shell. If you add a quantum of energy e to an electron by, perhaps, banging on it with a hammer or shining a light on it, the electron can no longer stay in its current shell but must jump to a higher energy shell (Fig. 12-1). Each orbital shell can hold a limited number of electrons and no more. The inner shells of an atom are normally all full. We work with the outer
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Fig. 12-1.
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Silicon atom.
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Semiconductors
Fig. 12-2.
Valence and conduction bands.
shells because they are often not full. If we add energy to an atom, an electron will jump from an outer shell to an even higher energy shell. Similarly, that electron will drop back down to its regular level when it loses its energy. The normal outer shell of an atom is the valence and the energy level of that shell is its valence band. The next band out is the conduction band. When an electron is in the conduction band, it is very loosely bound to the atom and can be easily pushed into a neighboring atom s conduction band. The amount of energy needed to jump an electron from the valence to the conduction band is the band gap (Fig. 12-2). Conductors have a very small band gap so that the energy available at room temperature kicks a bunch of the conductor s electrons into the conduction band. A solid made up of these atoms has a loose sea of electrons that is easily shifted around. An insulator has a large band gap. It takes a lot of energy to kick an electron out of its valence band and into the loosely held conduction band. Semiconductors have a medium-sized band gap and are mostly insulators.
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