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Silicon (Si, element 14) is a semiconductor. At room temperature, silicon conducts a little bit. The energy available during normal operating conditions kicks some of its valence electrons into the conduction band. Not many, maybe one in a billion, but enough to create a perceptible current. The colder the silicon is, the less it will conduct because the electrons lose their energy and fall back into the valence band. A simple component, the thermistor, takes advantage of this feature, changing its resistance based on the temperature. The conduction behavior of a silicon semiconductor can be adjusted by alloying it with small amounts of impurities, or dopants.
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Imagine, if you will, a tetrahedral lattice of silicon where each atom is bound to four other silicon atoms. If this lattice were squashed at and drawn in a schematic form, it might look like Fig. 12-3. Since only the outer shell interacts with the neighboring atoms, we simplify the atom and draw only this outer shell and its four electrons. Silicon creates covalent bonds with four of its neighbors, meaning they share electrons in the valance shell. The valence shell in silicon has four electrons but has room for four more. It is these empty slots in the shell that are lled by electrons from neighboring atoms. This creates a tight bond between the atoms and keeps the electrons rmly in place. What if you added some phosphorus (P, element 15) to the silicon Phosphorus has ve electrons in its valence shell, but will still form covalent bonds with silicon. Figure 12-4 shows this, though it is hard to see. With ve electrons but only four of them tied in a covalent bond, there is an unbound electron. This electron is free to jump into the conduction band, giving this alloy more free electrons. A semiconductor with these free electrons is an n-type semiconductor. Note that the material still has a neutral charge, the same way that copper has a neutral charge. There are simply more loose electrons available to move when a voltage di erential is created. What if you added some boron (B, element 5) to the mix Boron has only three electrons in its valence shell, but will still form covalent bonds with silicon. Figure 12-5 shows this. In this case, there are a number of covalent bonding positions that are not lled by the boron. These holes are places where a free electron can get stuck. This type of alloy is a p-type
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Fig. 12-3.
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Silicon crystal.
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Fig. 12-4.
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N-type semiconductor (silicon and phosphorus).
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Fig. 12-5. P-type semiconductor (silicon and boron).
semiconductor. Again, it is electrically neutral. It is interesting to note that electron holes are mobile in the same way that free electrons are. As such, they are considered charge carriers. In most explanations, electron holes are said to carry a positive charge. Holes and free electrons occur naturally in the silicon lattice, as well as because of the added impurities. The free electrons and holes created by the dopants outnumber these natural ones, and are known as the majority carriers. They carry the majority of the charge. Any natural free electrons and holes in the lattice are the minority carriers and provide a small background leakage current. Even though Fig. 12-3 through 12-5 have been simpli ed down from the complex model in Fig. 12-1, it is still hard to see the di erences at a glance. We don t need to see the silicon as an atom at all. We can condense the picture down to the pure electron grid, as shown in Fig. 12-6. And even this
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