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Fig. 12-6. Silicon electron grid.
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Fig. 12-7.
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N-type grid.
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Fig. 12-8.
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P-type grid.
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silicon grid is just a backdrop where we can place free electrons for n-type material (Fig. 12-7) or where we can show the gaps, or holes, in p-type material (Fig. 12-8).
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Diodes illustrate most of the principles needed to understand the other active components. They use both n-type and p-type silicon to create a one-way valve for current. Let s look at how this works.
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Semiconductors
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First you need to be thinking about the semiconductor correctly. Once you assemble a semiconductor crystal you stop thinking about it in terms of individual atoms. The crystal becomes a mass of nuclei and a sea of electrons, held together by a continuous eld of force. Everything pretty much balances out. Electrons and the lack of electrons, the holes, can be shifted around by applying a charge to the crystal. Most explanations treat electron holes as if they were some kind of unparticle to be moved around. What happens, though, is that the background grid of electrons shifts around and the need for electrons, the hole, ends up where the electrons aren t. For the rst step, take two tiny pieces of semiconductor, one n-type and the other p-type. The moment you bond them together they become a single crystal and electrons are free to wander between the two halves (Fig. 12-9). Note that the two halves have di erent properties. One has a surplus of free electrons and the other has holes where free electrons can get stuck. Remember that both the free electrons and the electron holes can move around in the crystal. Free electrons from the N side of the crystal wander into the P side and, if they encounter an electron hole, get stuck there. Of course, as the electrons on the P side drift away from the junction, the holes appear to wander toward it and into the N side, gathering more free electrons. Every time a free electron from the N side gets stuck in the P side, the N side loses a bit of negative charge and the P side gains a bit. This process continues until the forces balance and there is a strip in the n-type semiconductor where the free electrons have been removed, leaving it with a positive charge. Those errant electrons are all trapped in holes in the p-type semiconductor, giving it a strip of negative charge (Fig. 12-10). Overall the material is still neutral. In fact, the electrons trapped in the holes are keeping the other electrons away. They repulse the free electrons in the n-type side so they stay away from the barrier. The positive strip is
Fig. 12-9. N-P junction ( rst joined).
Semiconductors
Fig. 12-10.
N-P junction (depletion region).
an illusion, since it is just the lack of electrons. The barrier electrons also repulse those in the semiconductor lattice in the p-type side, which is why the holes ow toward the barrier. Eventually, though, the forces all balance out. The barrier of locked electrons is the depletion zone. The free electrons have been depleted, and the holes have been taken away ( lled) so they can be considered to be depleted too. While the two halves of the depletion zone may have electrical charge, it is not a movable charge. Everything is stuck in place, so the depletion zone is an insulator.
FORWARD BIAS
The next step in creating a diode is to attach two wires to it, one on each side. When you apply a voltage across the diode in the forward direction, the current ows. Why Figure 12-11 shows the forward bias circuit. The battery, or other power source, is pushing electrons into the N side of the diode. As external electrons are pushed into the N side the pressure builds up until it begins to overcome the repulsion of the depletion zone. This shrinks the depletion zone and electrons are free to move again. The electrons continue to move across the barrier. They can kick electrons out of their holes and out the other side of the diode. This gives us current through the diode. The pressure needed to shrink the depeletion zone takes away some of the pressure from the circuit. This is the voltage drop across the diode.
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