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The name transistor is short for transfer resistor. The voltage at the base of the transistor controls the current ow across the rest of it. It is, in fact, a voltage-controlled variable insulator. As fundamental as transistors are, I don t recommend using them unless you are interested in designing low-level circuits. For most electronic switch applications, the MOSFET is a better device. If you are looking to amplify a signal, you are probably better o buying a commercially designed ampli er on an integrated circuit. Both MOSFETs and integrated circuits are discussed below.
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The pnp transistor is the same as the npn transistor, but all of the roles are reversed (Fig. 12-17). The base is made up of n-type semiconductor and the emitter and collector are both p-type. The battery hookups are likewise reversed. See if you can work out the operation from rst principles.
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A di erent approach to the transistor is the eld e ect transistor (FET). The FET comes in both npn and pnp avors, like the BJT. Let s look at just the npn FET (Fig. 12-18).
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Fig. 12-17.
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PNP transistor.
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Fig. 12-18.
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In this transistor, the two ends are the source (S), which is where electrons come in from ground, and the drain (D) where the electrons go out. The controlling area is the gate (G). With no charge at the gate, there is a small depletion layer between the N and P semiconductors. Current is still free to ow from the source to the drain. If you apply a negative charge to the gate this depletion layer grows, pinching o the ow of electrons. The more gate charge, the more pinched, until the resistance between the source and drain is large enough that no e ective current remains.
MOSFET
A MOSFET is a variation on the FET. The MOS stands for metal oxide semiconductor. The metal oxide is a glass-like layer that is an excellent insulator. It is used to completely insulate the gate from the rest of the transistor (Fig. 12-19). In this example we look at an enhancement mode MOSFET. The source and drain are both n-type semiconductors embedded in a p-type substrate. They are isolated from each other, so no current can ow. The gate is a metal plate separated from the substrate by a thin oxide insulator. When the gate is made positive relative to the source, the holes in the p-type substrate are pushed away from the gate (meaning the lattice electrons are attracted to it). This opens up a conducting channel, allowing current to ow from the source to the drain. A depletion mode MOSFET is like the FET, where the source and drain are attached to a common n-type channel. The electric eld at the gate pinches the channel closed. The gate of a MOSFET is almost perfectly insulated from the conduction channel, so there is no noticeable current leakage. The gate acts like a capacitor. Where the other transistors are analog switches, ampli ers even, the MOSFET has a limited analog range. It is more useful as a digital switch,
Fig. 12-19.
MOSFET.
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Fig. 12-20.
MOSFET switch.
turning current ow on and o . An example of a simple MOSFET switch is given in Fig. 12-20. The control signal is passed through a 10  resistor whose sole purpose is to protect the MOSFET from static discharge, since the gate is easily damaged. Depending on your circuit, it may not be necessary. The 10 k resistor to ground is there to make sure the gate returns to ground when there is no input signal driving it. The speci c MOSFET shown here is capable of turning on with a gate voltage of just 2 V, though the device is operating at its best between 4 and 5 V. The switch itself is across the source and drain. It can switch a maximum of 100 V at 1 amp, which is good for a $0.50 part.
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