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A remote-control robot is arguably not a robot at all, though there will de nitely be argument. If a human is directly controlling the actions of the machine, is it a robot If not, what is it
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CHAPTER 15 Communication
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If the human controller is simply giving high-level commands to the machine, more like a supervisor giving instructions to a worker, the machine starts to seem more robotic. At a certain point of abstraction the commands are less in the form of turn left and more in the form of go explore that rock. A robot that can operate by itself, under the instructive guidance of a remote operator, is said to be semi-autonomous. This is the twilight state between a remote-controlled machine and the fully autonomous (self-directing or, literally, following its own laws) robot. There are times when a remote-controlled robotic telepresence is desired but not possible. When a robot is on Mars, for example, it takes between 4 to 24 minutes to communicate with it using a direct communication link. Light may be fast, but it s not in nitely fast, and Mars is a long way away. And communication to a robot on Mars is rarely direct or immediate. Communication normally occurs through several relays. The communication won t work if the planets are in the way, so there could be long delays while the planets slowly rotate back into position. When it is impossible to directly control a robot, we turn to semi-autonomous systems. There are two control cycles in semi-autonomous systems. The high-level control occurs over a long time scale. A remote operator analyzes the most recent information from the robot and decides on its next course of action. This action is stated as commands to the robot go here, do this, report on that. These commands are then sent to the robot. Once the robot receives its commands, the second control cycle takes over. This is where the robot interprets the commands and tries to carry them out. It may have to deal with unforeseen problems, such as obstacles in its path or other unusual conditions. A clever robot can work around these obstacles, changing its path or avoiding problems as needed. The high-level commands are still carried out, but the details of their execution are up to the robot. A robot that is capable of solving the small problems it encounters is able to follow its commands better than a dumb robot that only replays low-level commands to its motor control systems. The universe is messy and there are always little problems that get in the way of a robot s operation. When the robot can solve these problems without human intervention, that robot becomes more reliable. As the robot carries out its instructions, it records information about its environment and internal status. This information is transmitted back to the control center, either during the operation or after the tasks have been completed. Note that the communication rate from Mars to Earth is pretty low, even slower than your desktop modem. It may take a long time to send information back about a short and simple task.
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Once the operator receives this feedback, they can plan the robot s next actions.
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After you have decided you want to communicate with your robot, the next question is how. Fortunately, there are many technologies available for robotic communication. Data communication provides a way to send and receive numbers. These numbers, in turn, are collections of bits, or on and o conditions (Table 7-1). The numbers can represent anything the programmer desires. In terms of communication, we only need to worry about sending the bits. The meaning is assigned to them at a di erent level of the system.
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