vb.net barcode reader free Trapezoidal Velocity Profile in Software

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Trapezoidal Velocity Profile
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If a motion control system is to achieve smooth, high-speed motion without overstressing the ser-
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Figure 1-7 Examples of position feedback sensors installed on a ballscrew-driven slide mechanism: (a) rotary encoder, (b) linear encoder, and (c) laser interferometer.
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Motor and Motion Control Systems
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Figure 1-8 Servomotors are accelerated to constant velocity and decelerated along a trapezoidal profile to assure efficient operation.
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vomotor, the motion controller must command the motor amplifier to ramp up motor velocity gradually until it reaches the desired speed and then ramp it down gradually until it stops after the task is complete. This keeps motor acceleration and deceleration within limits. The trapezoidal profile, shown in Figure 1-8, is widely used because it accelerates motor velocity along a positive linear up-ramp until the desired constant velocity is reached. When the motor is shut down from the constant velocity setting, the profile decelerates velocity along a negative down ramp until the motor stops. Amplifier current and output voltage reach maximum values during acceleration, then step down to lower values during constant velocity and switch to negative values during deceleration.
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Closed-Loop Control Techniques
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The simplest form of feedback is proportional control, but there are also derivative and integral control techniques, which compensate for certain steady-state errors that cannot be eliminated from proportional control. All three of these techniques can be combined to form proportionalintegral-derivative (PID) control. In proportional control the signal that drives the motor or actuator is directly proportional to the linear difference between the input command for the desired output and the measured actual output. In integral control the signal driving the motor equals the time integral of the difference between the input command and the measured actual output.
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Motor and Motion Control Systems
In derivative control the signal that drives the motor is proportional to the time derivative of the difference between the input command and the measured actual output. In proportional-integral-derivative (PID) control the signal that drives the motor equals the weighted sum of the difference, the time integral of the difference, and the time derivative of the difference between the input command and the measured actual output.
Open-Loop Motion Control Systems
A typical open-loop motion control system includes a stepper motor with a programmable indexer or pulse generator and motor driver, as shown in Figure 1-9. This system does not need feedback sensors because load
Figure 1-9 Block diagram of an open-loop motion control system.
position and velocity are controlled by the predetermined number and direction of input digital pulses sent to the motor driver from the controller. Because load position is not continuously sampled by a feedback sensor (as in a closed-loop servosystem), load positioning accuracy is lower and position errors (commonly called step errors) accumulate over time. For these reasons open-loop systems are most often specified in applications where the load remains constant, load motion is simple, and low positioning speed is acceptable.
Kinds of Controlled Motion
There are five different kinds of motion control: point-to-point, sequencing, speed, torque, and incremental. In point-to-point motion control the load is moved between a sequence of numerically defined positions where it is stopped before it is moved to the next position. This is done at a constant speed, with both velocity and distance monitored by the motion controller. Pointto-point positioning can be performed in single-axis or multiaxis systems with servomotors in closed loops or stepping motors in open
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Motor and Motion Control Systems
loops. X-Y tables and milling machines position their loads by multiaxis point-to-point control. Sequencing control is the control of such functions as opening and closing valves in a preset sequence or starting and stopping a conveyor belt at specified stations in a specific order. Speed control is the control of the velocity of the motor or actuator in a system. Torque control is the control of motor or actuator current so that torque remains constant despite load changes. Incremental motion control is the simultaneous control of two or more variables such as load location, motor speed, or torque.
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