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Motor and Motion Control Systems
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Figure 1-14 This single-axis linear guide for load positioning is supported by air bearings as it moves along a granite base.
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the tolerance, wear, and compliance in the mechanical components between the carriage and the position encoder that can cause deviations between the desired and true positions. Consequently, this feedback method limits position accuracy to ballscrew accuracy, typically 5 to 10 m per 300 mm. Other kinds of single-axis stages include those containing antifriction rolling elements such as recirculating and nonrecirculating balls or rollers, sliding (friction contact) units, air-bearing units, hydrostatic units, and magnetic levitation (Maglev) units. A single-axis air-bearing guide or stage is shown in Figure 1-14. Some models being offered are 3.9 ft (1.2 m) long and include a carriage for mounting loads. When driven by a linear servomotors the loads can reach velocities of 9.8 ft/s (3 m/s). As shown in Figure 1-7, these stages can be equipped with feedback devices such as cost-effective linear encoders or ultra-high-resolution laser interferometers. The resolution of this type of stage with a noncontact linear encoder can be as fine as 20 nm and accuracy can be 1 m. However, these values can be increased to 0.3 nm resolution and submicron accuracy if a laser interferometer is installed. The pitch, roll, and yaw of air-bearing stages can affect their resolution and accuracy. Some manufacturers claim 1 arc-s per 100 mm as the limits for each of these characteristics. Large air-bearing surfaces provide excellent stiffness and permit large load-carrying capability. The important attributes of all these stages are their dynamic and static friction, rigidity, stiffness, straightness, flatness, smoothness, and load capacity. Also considered is the amount of work needed to prepare the host machine s mounting surface for their installation.
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Figure 1-15 Flexible shaft couplings adjust for and accommodate parallel misalignment (a) and angular misalignment between rotating shafts (b).
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Figure 1-16 Bellows couplings (a) are acceptable for light-duty applications. Misalignments can be 9 angular or 1 4 in. parallel. Helical couplings (b) prevent backlash and can operate at constant velocity with misalignment and be run at high speed.
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The structure on which the motion control system is mounted directly affects the system s performance. A properly designed base or host machine will be highly damped and act as a compliant barrier to isolate the motion system from its environment and minimize the impact of external disturbances. The structure must be stiff enough and sufficiently damped to avoid resonance problems. A high static mass to reciprocating mass ratio can also prevent the motion control system from exciting its host structure to harmful resonance. Any components that move will affect a system s response by changing the amount of inertia, damping, friction, stiffness, or resonance. For example, a flexible shaft coupling, as shown in Figure 1-15, will compensate for minor parallel (a) and angular (b) misalignment between rotating shafts. Flexible couplings are available in other configurations such as bellows and helixes, as shown in Figure 1-16. The bellows configuration (a) is acceptable for light-duty applications where misalign-
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Motor and Motion Control Systems
ments can be as great as 9 angular or 1 4 in. parallel. By contrast, helical couplings (b) prevent backlash at constant velocity with some misalignment, and they can also be run at high speed. Other moving mechanical components include cable carriers that retain moving cables, end stops that restrict travel, shock absorbers to dissipate energy during a collision, and way covers to keep out dust and dirt.
Electronic System Components
The motion controller is the brain of the motion control system and performs all of the required computations for motion path planning, servo-loop closure, and sequence execution. It is essentially a computer dedicated to motion control that has been programmed by the end user for the performance of assigned tasks. The motion controller produces a low-power motor command signal in either a digital or analog format for the motor driver or amplifier. Significant technical developments have led to the increased acceptance of programmable motion controllers over the past five to ten years: These include the rapid decrease in the cost of microprocessors as well as dramatic increases in their computing power. Added to that are the decreasing cost of more advanced semiconductor and disk memories. During the past five to ten years, the capability of these systems to improve product quality, increase throughput, and provide just-in-time delivery has improved has improved significantly. The motion controller is the most critical component in the system because of its dependence on software. By contrast, the selection of most motors, drivers, feedback sensors, and associated mechanisms is less critical because they can usually be changed during the design phase or even later in the field with less impact on the characteristics of the intended system. However, making field changes can be costly in terms of lost productivity. The decision to install any of the three kinds of motion controllers should be based on their ability to control both the number and types of motors required for the application as well as the availability of the software that will provide the optimum performance for the specific application. Also to be considered are the system s multitasking capabilities, the number of input/output (I/O) ports required, and the need for such features as linear and circular interpolation and electronic gearing and camming. In general, a motion controller receives a set of operator instructions from a host or operator interface and it responds with corresponding com-