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Figure 1-20 Cutaway view of a permanent-magnet DC servomotor with a cup-type armature.
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servo applications. They have hollow cylindrical armatures made as aluminum or copper coils bonded by polymer resin and fiberglass to form a rigid ironless cup, which is fastened to an axial shaft. A cutaway view of this class of servomotor is illustrated in Figure1-20. Because the armature has no iron core, it, like the disk motor, has extremely low inertia and a very high torque-to-inertia ratio. This permits the motor to accelerate rapidly for the quick response required in many motion-control applications. The armature rotates in an air gap within very high magnetic flux density. The magnetic field from the stationary magnets is completed through the cup-type armature and a stationary ferrous cylindrical core connected to the motor frame. The shaft rotates within the core, which extends into the rotating cup. Springbrushes commutate these motors. Another version of a cup-type PM DC motor is shown in the exploded view in Figure 1-21. The cup type armature is rigidly fastened to the shaft by a disk at the right end of the winding, and the magnetic field is also returned through a ferrous metal housing. The brush assembly of this motor is built into its end cap or flange, shown at the far right. The principal disadvantage of this motor is also the inability of its bonded armature to dissipate internal heat buildup rapidly because of its low thermal conductivity. Without proper cooling and sensitive control circuitry, the armature could be heated to destructive temperatures in seconds.
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Figure 1-21 Exploded view of a fractional horsepower brushtype DC servomotor.
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Brushless DC motors exhibit the same linear speed torque characteristics as the brush-type PM DC motors, but they are electronically commutated. The construction of these motors, as shown in Figure 1-22, differs from that of a typical brush-type DC motor in that they are inside-out. In other words, they have permanent magnet rotors instead of stators, and the stators rather than the rotors are wound. Although this geometry is required for brushless DC motors, some manufacturers have adapted this design for brush-type DC motors. The mechanical brush and bar commutator of the brushless DC motor is replaced by electronic sensors, typically Hall-effect devices (HEDs). They are located within the stator windings and wired to solidstate transistor switching circuitry located either on circuit cards mounted within the motor housings or in external packages. Generally, only fractional horsepower brushless motors have switching circuitry within their housings. The cylindrical magnet rotors of brushless DC motors are magnetized laterally to form opposing north and south poles across the rotor s diameter. These rotors are typically made from neodymium iron boron or samarium cobalt rare-earth magnetic materials, which offer higher flux densities than alnico magnets. These materials permit motors offering higher performance to be packaged in the same frame sizes as earlier motor designs or those with the same ratings to be packaged in smaller frames than the earlier designs. Moreover, rare-earth or ceramic magnet
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Figure 1-22 Cutaway view of a brushless DC motor.
rotors can be made with smaller diameters than those earlier models with alnico magnets, thus reducing their inertia. A simplified diagram of a DC brushless motor control with one Halleffect device (HED) for the electronic commutator is shown in Figure 1-23. The HED is a Hall-effect sensor integrated with an ampli-
Figure 1-23 Simplified diagram of Hall-effect device (HED) commutation of a brushless DC motor.
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Motor and Motion Control Systems
Figure 1-24 Exploded view of a brushless DC motor with Hall-effect device (HED) commutation.
fier in a silicon chip. This IC is capable of sensing the polarity of the rotor s magnetic field and then sending appropriate signals to power transistors T1 and T2 to cause the motor s rotor to rotate continuously. This is accomplished as follows: 1. With the rotor motionless, the HED detects the rotor s north magnetic pole, causing it to generate a signal that turns on transistor T2. This causes current to flow, energizing winding W2 to form a southseeking electromagnetic rotor pole. This pole then attracts the rotor s north pole to drive the rotor in a counterclockwise (CCW) direction. 2. The inertia of the rotor causes it to rotate past its neutral position so that the HED can then sense the rotor s south magnetic pole. It then switches on transistor T1, causing current to flow in winding W1, thus forming a north-seeking stator pole that attracts the rotor s south pole, causing it to continue to rotate in the CCW direction. The transistors conduct in the proper sequence to ensure that the excitation in the stator windings W2 and W1 always leads the PM rotor field to produce the torque necessary keep the rotor in constant rotation. The windings are energized in a pattern that rotates around the stator. There are usually two or three HEDs in practical brushless motors that are spaced apart by 90 or 120 around the motor s rotor. They send the signals to the motion controller that actually triggers the power transistors, which drive the armature windings at a specified motor current and voltage level. The brushless motor in the exploded view Figure 1-24 illustrates a design for a miniature brushless DC motor that includes Hall-effect com-
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