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slide by a coupling that compensates for any alignment errors between the scale and the machine guideways. External electronic circuitry interpolates the sinusoidal signals from the encoder head to subdivide the line spacing on the scale so that it can measure even smaller motion increments. The practical maximum length of linear encoder scales is about 10 ft (3 m), but commercial catalog models are typically limited to about 6 ft (2 m). If longer distances are to be measured, the encoder scale is made of steel tape with reflective graduations that are sensed by an appropriate photoelectric scanning unit. Linear encoders can make direct measurements that overcome the inaccuracies inherent in mechanical stages due to backlash, hysteresis, and leadscrew error. However, the scale s susceptibility to damage from metallic chips, grit oil, and other contaminants, together with its relatively large space requirements, limits applications for these encoders. Commercial linear encoders are available as standard catalog models, or they can be custom made for specific applications or extreme environmental conditions. There are both fully enclosed and open linear encoders with travel distances from 2 in. to 6 ft (50 mm to 1.8 m). Some commercial models are available with resolutions down to 0.07 m, and others can operate at speeds of up to 16.7 ft/s (5 m/s).
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Magnetic encoders can be made by placing a transversely polarized permanent magnet in close proximity to a Hall-effect device sensor. Figure 1-39 shows a magnet mounted on a motor shaft in close proximity to a twochannel HED array which detects changes in magnetic flux density as the magnet rotates. The output signals from the sensors are transmitted to the motion controller. The encoder output, either a square wave or a
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Figure 1-39 Basic parts of a magnetic encoder.
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quasi sine wave (depending on the type of magnetic sensing device) can be used to count revolutions per minute (rpm) or determine motor shaft accurately. The phase shift between channels A and B permits them to be compared by the motion controller to determine the direction of motor shaft rotation.
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A resolver is essentially a rotary transformer that can provide position feedback in a servosystem as an alternative to an encoder. Resolvers resemble small AC motors, as shown in Figure 1-40, and generate an electrical signal for each revolution of their shaft. Resolvers that sense position in closed-loop motion control applications have one winding on the rotor and a pair of windings on the stator, oriented at 90 . The stator is made by winding copper wire in a stack of iron laminations fastened to the housing, and the rotor is made by winding copper wire in a stack of laminations mounted on the resolver s shaft.
Figure 1-40 Exploded view of a brushless resolver frame (a), and rotor and bearings (b). The coil on the rotor couples speed data inductively to the frame for processing.
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Figure 1-41 Schematic for a resolver shows how rotor position is transformed into sine and cosine outputs that measure rotor position.
Figure 1-41 is an electrical schematic for a brushless resolver showing the single rotor winding and the two stator windings 90 apart. In a servosystem, the resolver s rotor is mechanically coupled to the drive motor and load. When a rotor winding is excited by an AC reference signal, it produces an AC voltage output that varies in amplitude according to the sine and cosine of shaft position. If the phase shift between the applied signal to the rotor and the induced signal appearing on the stator coil is measured, that angle is an analog of rotor position. The absolute position of the load being driven can be determined by the ratio of the sine output amplitude to the cosine output amplitude as the resolver shaft turns through one revolution. (A single-speed resolver produces one sine and one cosine wave as the output for each revolution.) Connections to the rotor of some resolvers can be made by brushes and slip rings, but resolvers for motion control applications are typically brushless. A rotating transformer on the rotor couples the signal to the rotor inductively. Because brushless resolvers have no slip rings or brushes, they are more rugged than encoders and have operating lives that are up to ten times those of brush-type resolvers. Bearing failure is the most likely cause of resolver failure. The absence of brushes in these resolvers makes them insensitive to vibration and contaminants. Typical brushless resolvers have diameters from 0.8 to 3.7 in. Rotor shafts are typically threaded and splined. Most brushless resolvers can operate over a 2- to 40-volt range, and their winding are excited by an AC reference voltage at frequencies from 400 to 10,000 Hz. The magnitude of the voltage induced in any stator winding is proportional to the cosine of the angle, q, between the rotor coil axis and the stator coil axis. The voltage induced across any pair of
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