vb.net barcode reader usb SHIFTING THE CENTER OF GRAVITY in Software

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SHIFTING THE CENTER OF GRAVITY
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A trick that can be applied to mobile robots that extends the robot s mobility, independent of the mobility system, is to move the center of gravity (cg) of the robot, thereby changing which wheels, tracks, or legs are carrying the most weight. A discussion of this concept and some lay-
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outs are included in this chapter, but the basic concept can be applied to almost any mobile robot. Shifting the center of gravity can be accomplished by moving a dedicated weight, shifting the cargo, or reorienting the manipulator. Moving the cg can allow the robot to move across wider gaps, climb steeper slopes, and get over or onto higher steps. If it is planned to move the manipulator, then the manipulator must make up a significant fraction of the total weight of the vehicle for the concept to work effectively. While moving the cg seems very useful, all but the manipulator technique require extra space in the robot for the weight and/or mechanism that moves the weight. The figures show the basic concept and several variations of cg shifting that might be tried if no other mobility system can be designed to negotiate a required obstacle, or if the concept is being applied as a retrofit to extend an existing robot s mobility. Functionally, as a gap in the terrain approaches, the cg is shifted aft, allowing the mobility system s front ground contact point to reach across the gap without the robot tipping forward. When those parts reach the far side of the gap, the robot is driven forward until it is almost across, then the cg is shifted forward, lifting the rear ground contact points off the ground. The vehicle is then driven across the gap the rest of the way. For stair climbing or steep slopes, the cg is shifted forward so it remains over the center of area of the mobility system. For climbing up a single bump or step, it is shifted back just as the vehicle climbs onto the step. This reduces the tendency of the robot to slam down on the front parts of the mobility system. It must be noted that cg shifting can be controlled autonomously fairly easily if there is an inclinometer or accelerometer onboard the robot that can give inclination. The control loop would be set to move the cg in relation to the fore and aft tilt of the robot. In fact, it might be possible to make the cg shifting system completely automatic and independent of all other systems on the robot, but no known example of this has been tested. Figures 4-1 and 4-2 show two basic techniques for moving the cg. The various figures in this chapter show wheel layouts without showing drive mechanisms. The location of the drive motor(s) is left to the designer, but there are a few unusual techniques for connecting the drive motor to the wheels that affect mobility that should be discussed. Some of the figures show the chassis located in line with the axles of the wheels, and some show it completely above the wheels, which increases ground clearance at the possible expense of increased complexity of the coupling mechanism. In many cases, the layouts that show the chassis down low can be altered to have it up high, and vise-versa.
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Figure 4-1 Method for shifting the center of gravity on a linear slide
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Figure 4-2 Shifting the cg on a swinging arm
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Figure 4-3 wheel hub
Geared offset
For the raised layouts, the drive axle is coupled to the wheel through a chain, belt drive, or gearbox. The US Army s High Mobility Multipurpose Wheeled Vehicle (HMMWV, HumVee, or Hummer), uses geared offset hubs (Figure 4-3) resulting in a ground clearance of 16" with tires that are 37" in diameter. This shows how effective the raised chassis layout can be.
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