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Figure 4-12 Rear transverse rocker, rear steer
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every wheel. Although this seems like a complicated solution from an electrical and control standpoint, it is simpler mechanically. Steering with the rear wheels is effective for a human controlled vehicle, especially in an environment with few obstacles that must be driven around. The transverse rocker layout can also be used with a front steered layout (Figure 4-13) which makes it very much like an automobile. Couple this layout with all wheel drive, and this is a good performer.
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Figure 4-13 Rear transverse rocker, front steer
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Wheels dr iven by gearmotors are mounted on pivoting struts.
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A small prototype robotic all-terrain vehicle features a unique drive and suspension system that affords capabilities for self righting, pose control, and enhanced maneuverability for passing over obstacles. The vehicle is designed for exploration of planets and asteroids, and could just as well be used on Earth to carry scientific instruments to remote, hostile, or otherwise inaccessible locations on the ground. The drive and suspension system enable the vehicle to perform such diverse maneuvers as flipping itself over, traveling normal side up or upside down, orienting the main vehicle body in a specified direction in all three dimensions, or setting the main vehicle body down onto the ground, to name a few. Another maneuver enables the vehicle to overcome a common weakness of traditional all-terrain vehicles a limitation on traction and drive force that makes it difficult or impossible to push wheels over some obstacles: This vehicle can simply lift a wheel onto the top of an obstacle. The basic mode of operation of the vehicle can be characterized as four-wheel drive with skid steering. Each wheel is driven individually by a dedicated gearmotor. Each wheel and its gearmotor are mounted at the free end of a strut that pivots about a lateral axis through the center of
Figure 4-14 Each wheel Is driven by a dedicated gearmotor and is coupled to the idler pulley. The pivot assembly imposes a constant frictional torque T, so that it is possible to (a) turn both wheels in unison while both struts remain locked, (b) pivot one strut, or (c) pivot both struts in opposite directions by energizing the gearmotors to apply various combinations of torques T/2 or T.
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Wheeled Vehicle Suspensions and Drivetrains
gravity of the vehicle (see figure). Through pulleys or other mechanism attached to their wheels, both gearmotors on each side of the vehicle drive a single idler disk or pulley that turns about the pivot axis. The design of the pivot assembly is crucial to the unique capabilities of this system. The idler pulley and the pivot disks of the struts are made of suitably chosen materials and spring-loaded together along the pivot axis in such a way as to resist turning with a static frictional torque T; in other words, it is necessary to apply a torque of T to rotate the idler pulley or either strut with respect to each other or the vehicle body. During ordinary backward or forward motion along the ground, both wheels are turned in unison by their gearmotors, and the belt couplings make the idler pulley turn along with the wheels. In this operational mode, each gearmotor contributes a torque T/2 so that together, both gearmotors provide torque T to overcome the locking friction on the idler pulley. Each strut remains locked at its preset angle because the torque T/2 supplied by its motor is not sufficient to overcome its locking friction T. If it is desired to change the angle between one strut and the main vehicle body, then the gearmotor on that strut only is energized. In general, a gearmotor acts as a brake when not energized. Since the gearmotor on the other strut is not energized and since it is coupled to the idler pulley, a torque greater than T would be needed to turn the idler pulley. However, as soon as the gearmotor on the strut that one desires to turn is energized, it develops enough torque (T) to begin pivoting the strut with respect to the vehicle body. It is also possible to pivot both struts simultaneously in opposite directions to change the angle between them. To accomplish this, one energizes the gearmotors to apply equal and opposite torques of magnitude T: The net torque on the idler pulley balances out to zero, so that the idler pulley and body remain locked, while the applied torques are just sufficient to turn the struts against locking friction. If it is desired to pivot the struts through unequal angles, then the gearmotor speeds are adjusted accordingly. The prototype vehicle has performed successfully in tests. Current and future work is focused on designing a simple hub mechanism, which is not sensitive to dust or other contamination, and on active control techniques to allow autonomous planetary rovers to take advantage of the flexibility of the mechanism. This work was done by Brian H. Wilcox and Annette K. Nasif of Caltech for NASA s Jet Propulsion Laboratory. If a differential is installed between the halves of a longitudinal rocker layout, with the axles of the differential attached to each longitudinal rocker, and interesting effect happens to the differential input gear as the
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