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Wheeled Vehicle Suspensions and Drivetrains
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Figure 4-15 Pitch averaging mechanism
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vehicle traverses bumpy terrain. If you attach the chassis to this gear, the pitch angle of the chassis is half the pitch angle of either side rocker. This pitch averaging effectively reduces the pitching motion of the chassis, maintaining it at a more level pose as either side of the suspension system travels over bumps. This can be advantageous in vehicles under camera control, and even a fully autonomous sensor driven robot can benefit from less rocking motion of the main chassis. This mechanism also tends to distribute the weight more evenly on all four wheels, increasing traction, and, therefore, mobility. Figure 4-15 shows the basic mechanism and Figure 4-16 shows it installed in a vehicle. Another mechanical linkage gives the same result as the differentialbased chassis pitch-averaging system. See figure 4-17. This design uses a third rocker tied at each end to a point on the side rockers. The middle of the third rocker is then tied to the middle of the rear (or front) of the chassis, and, therefore, travels up and down only half the distance each end of a given rocker travels. The third rocker design can be more volumetrically efficient and perhaps lighter than the differential layout. Another layout that can commonly be found in large industrial vehicles is one where the vehicle is divided into two sections, front and rear, each with its own pair of wheels. The two sections are connected through
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Figure 4-16 Chassis pitch averaging mechanism using differential
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an articulated (powered) vertical-axis joint. In the industrial truck version, the front and rear sections wheels are driven through differentials, but higher traction would be obtained if the differentials were limited slip, or lockable. Even better would be to have each wheel driven with its
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Figure 4-17 Chassis link-based pitch averaging mechanism
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Wheeled Vehicle Suspensions and Drivetrains
own motor. This design cannot turn in place, but careful layout can produce a vehicle that can turn in little more than twice its width. Greater mobility is achieved if the center joint also allows a rolling motion between the two sections. This degree of freedom keeps all four wheels on the ground while traversing uneven terrain or obstacles. It also improves traction while turning on bumps. Highest mobility for this layout would come from powering both the pivot and roll joints with their own motors and each wheel individually powered for a total of six motors. Alternatively, the wheels could be powered through limited slip differentials and the roll axis left passive for less mobility, but only three motors. Figures 4-18 and 4-19 show these two closely related layouts. An unusual and unintuitive layout is the five-wheeled drivetrain. This is basically the tricycle layout, but with an extra pair of wheels in the back to increase traction and ground contact area. The front wheel is not normally powered and is only for steering. Figure 4-20 shows this is a fairly simple layout relative to its mobility, especially if the side wheel pairs are driven together through a simple chain or belt drive. Although the front wheels must be pushed over obstacles, there is ample traction from all that rubber on the four rear wheels.
Figure 4-18 Two-sections connected through vertical axis joint
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Wheeled Vehicle Suspensions and Drivetrains
Figure 4-19 Two sections connected through both a vertical axis and a longitudinal axis joint
Figure 4-20 Five wheels
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Wheeled Vehicle Suspensions and Drivetrains
SIX-WHEELED LAYOUTS
Beyond four- and five-wheeled vehicles is the large class of six-wheeled layouts. There are many layouts, suspensions, and drivetrains based on six wheels. Six wheels are generally the best compromise for highmobility wheeled vehicles. Six wheels put enough ground pressure, traction, steering mobility, and obstacle-negotiating ability on a vehicle without, in most cases, very much complexity. Let s take a look at the more practical variations of six-wheeled layouts. The most basic six-wheeled vehicle, shown in Figure 4-21, is the skidsteered non-suspended design. This is very much like the four-wheeled design with improved mobility simply because there is more traction and less ground pressure because of the third wheel on each side. The wheels can be driven with chains, belts, or bevel gearboxes in a simple way, making for a robust system. An advantage of the third wheel in the skid-steer layout is that the middle wheel on each side can be mounted slightly lower than the other two, reducing the weight the front and rear wheel pairs carry. The lower weight reduces the forces needed to skid them around when turning, reducing turning power. The offset center axle can make the vehicle wobble a bit. Careful planning of the location of the center of gravity is required to minimize this problem. Figure 4-22 shows the basic concept.
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