vb.net barcode reader usb Figure 4-21 Six wheels, all fixed, skid steer in Software

Drawing Data Matrix 2d barcode in Software Figure 4-21 Six wheels, all fixed, skid steer

Figure 4-21 Six wheels, all fixed, skid steer
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Wheeled Vehicle Suspensions and Drivetrains
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Figure 4-22 Six wheels, all fixed, skid steer, offset center axle
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An even trickier layout adds two pairs of four-bar mechanisms supporting the front and rear wheel pairs (Figure 4-23). These mechanisms are moved by linear actuators, which raise and lower the wheels at each corner independently. This semi-walking mechanism allows the vehicle to negotiate obstacles that are taller than the wheels, and can aid in traversing other difficult terrain by actively controlling the weight on each wheel. This added mobility comes at the expense of many more moving parts and four more actuators. Skid steering can be improved by adding a steering mechanism to the front pair of wheels, and grouping the rear pair more closely together.
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Figure 4-23 Six wheels, all corner wheels have adjustable height, skid steer
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Figure 4-24 Six wheels, front pair steer
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This has better steering efficiency, but, surprisingly, not much better mobility. Incorporating the Ackerman steering layout removes the ability of the robot to turn in place. This can be a real handicap in tight places. Figure 4-24 shows the basic layout. Remember that the relative sizes of wheels and the spacing between them can be varied to produce different mobility characteristics. The epitome of complexity in a once commercially available sixwheeled vehicle, not recommended to be copied for autonomous robot use, is the Alvis Stalwart. This vehicle was designed with the goal of going anywhere in any conditions. It was a six-wheeled (all independently suspended on parallel links with torsion arms) vehicle whose front four wheels steered. Each bank of three wheels was driven together through bevel gears off half-shafts. It had offset wheel hub reduction gear boxes, a lockable central differential power transfer box with integral reversing gears, and twin water jet drives for amphibious propulsion. All six wheels could be locked together for ultimate straight-ahead traction. No sketch is included for obvious reasons, but a website with good information and pictures of this fantastically complicated machine is www.4wdonline.com/Mil/alvis/stalwart.html. The main problem with these simple layouts is that when one wheel is up on a bump, the lack of suspension lifts the other wheels up, drastically reducing traction and mobility. The ideal suspension would keep the load
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Wheeled Vehicle Suspensions and Drivetrains
Figure 4-25 Six wheels, three sections, one DOF between each section, skid steer
on each wheel the same no matter at what height any one wheel is. The following suspension systems even out the load on each wheel some more than others. An interesting layout that does a good job of maintaining an even load distribution divides the robot into three sections connected by a single degree of freedom joint between each section (Figure 4-25). The center section has longitudinal joints on its front and back that attach to the cross pieces of the front and rear sections. These joints allow each section to roll independently. This movement keeps all six wheels on the ground. The roll axes are passive, requiring no actuators, but the separation of the wheeled sections usually forces putting a motor at each wheel, and the vehicle is skid steered. This layout has been experimented with by researchers and has very high mobility. The only drawback is that the roll joints must be sized to handle the large forces generated when skid steering. The rocker bogie suspension system shown in Figure 4-26 uses an extension of the basic four-wheel rocker layout. By adding a bogie to one end of the rocker arm, two wheels can be suspended from one end and one from the other end. Although this layout looks like it would produce asymmetrical loads on the wheels, if the length of the bogie is half that of the rocker, and the rocker is attached to the chassis one third of its length from the bogie end, the load on each wheel is actually identical. The proportions can be varied to produce uneven loads, which can improve mobility incrementally for one travel direction, but the basic layout has very good mobility. The rocker bogie s big advantage is that it
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