vb.net barcode reader usb Four-Tracked Drivetrains in Software

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Adding more tracks would seem to increase the mobility of a tracked vehicle, but there are several problems with this approach. Adding more tracks necessarily means more moving parts, but it also usually means making the vehicle longer. The best layout would be one that adds more
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Figure 5-16 iRobot s Urbie, a four-tracked teleoperated robot layout
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tracks with the least number of additional moving parts, and keeps the vehicle the same length. This last criteria almost exclusively means a reconfigurable layout, one where the length is longer when that is needed, but can reconfigure into a shorter length when that is needed. This concept has been implemented in a couple of different ways, both of which are patented. Figure 5-16 shows the general layout of iRobot s Urbie telerobotic platform. This layout uses a third actuator to deploy or stow a pair of flipper-like tracks that rotate around the front idler wheels. They are powered by the same motors that power the main tracks, and always turn with them. This layout represents the simplest form of a four-track vehicle, and has very high mobility. The center of gravity of Urbie is located ahead of the center of the vehicle so, with the flippers extended, Urbie can cross crevasses that are wider than half the length of the basic vehicle. This clever location of the cg also gives the flippers the ability to flip the robot over if it is overturned. When the flippers are rotated around so they become very large ramps, Urbie can climb over obstacles that are higher than the overall height of the basic track. There are also other functions the flippers can perform unrelated to mobility, like the ability to stand up. This makes the robot much taller and allows a strategically placed camera to see over short walls.
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Figure 5-17a Same length flippers, sharing middle axle
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Figure 5-17b
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A close relative of Urbie s layout (Figure 5-17a b) is one where the track pairs are the same size, with the cg located very close to the shared axle of the front and rear tracks. With two actuators to power each of the four tracks independently and a fifth actuator to power the pivot joint a
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very capable layout results. The main chassis is geared to the shared axle so it is always at the half-angle between the front and rear tracks, which allows it to be raised up yet still be level when folding both tracks down. This trick raises the entire chassis, but it also offloads the weight of the robot from the track guide blades, increasing rolling efficiency when high traction is not needed. This reconfigurable layout combines the high mobility of tracks with good smooth-road rolling efficiency. There are two basic layouts for four-tracked vehicles. They are both train-like in that there are two two-tracked modules connected by some sort of joint. The two modules must be able to move in several directions relative to each other. They can pitch up and down, yaw left and right, and, ideally, roll (twist). The simplest connection that allows all three degrees of freedom is the ball joint. If the joint is passive, steering is accomplished in the same way as a two-tracked vehicle, except that now both modules must turn at just the right time to keep skidding between the modules to a minimum. This turns out to be tricky. The ball joint also limits the range of steering angle simply because the socket must wrap around the ball enough to adequately capture it. A universal joint has a greater range of motion, and is easier to use if the joint is to be powered. The articulated joint, an active universal joint, overcomes the steering problem by allowing the tracks to rotate at whatever speed limits skidding. This steering method makes this layout very agile. The Hagglund Bv206, which uses this layout, is considered nearly unstoppable in almost any terrain from soft snow to steep hills. It is even amphibious, propelled through the water by the tracks. Because it cannot be skid steered, it can t turn in place. Nevertheless, it is a very capable layout. Steering the Hagglund Bv206 is done with a standard steering wheel, which turns the articulated joint and forces the two modules to bend. The tracks are driven through limited slip differentials, allowing the inner and outer tracks in each module to travel at different speeds just like in an Ackerman steered wheeled vehicle.
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