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Steering History
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Figure 6-5a steering
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Figure 6-5b
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vehicles use this method to steer, while older tracked vehicles would brake a track on one side, slowing down only that track, which turned the vehicle. As discussed in the chapter on wheeled vehicles, this is also the steering method used on some four-wheel loaders like the well-known Bobcat. One motor drives the two wheels on one side of the vehicle, the other drives the two wheels on the other side. This steering method is so effective and robust that it is used on a large percentage of four-, six-, and even eight-wheeled robots, and nearly all modern tracked vehicles whether autonomous or not. This steering method produces a lot of skid-
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ding of the wheels or tracks. This is where the name skid steer comes from. The fact that the wheels or tracks skid means this system is wasting energy wearing off the tires or track pads, and this makes skid steering an inefficient design. Placing the wheels close together or making the tracks shorter reduces this skidding at the cost of fore/aft stability. Six-wheeled skid-steering vehicles can place the center set of wheels slightly below the front and back set, reducing skidding at the cost of adding wobbling. Several all-terrain vehicle manufacturers have made six-wheeled vehicles with this very slight offset, and the concept can be applied to indoor hard-surface robots also. Eight-wheeled robots can benefit from lowering the center two sets of wheels, reducing wobbling somewhat. The single wheel drive/steer module discussed earlier and shown on a tricycle in Figure 6-6 can be applied to many layouts, and is, in general, an effective mechanism. One drawback is some inherent complexity with powering the wheel through the turning mechanism. This is usually accomplished by putting the drive motor, with a gearbox, inside the wheel. Using this layout, the power to the drive motor is only a couple wires and signal lines from whatever sensors are in the drive wheel. These wires must go through the steering mechanism, which is easier than passing power mechanically through this joint. In some motor-inwheel layouts, particularly the syncro-drive discussed next, the steering
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Figure 6-6 on tricycle
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Drive/steer module
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Steering History
Figure 6-7
Synchronous drive
mechanism must be able to rotate the drive wheel in either direction as much as is needed. This requires an electrical slip ring in the steering joint. Slip rings, also called rotary joints, are manufactured in both standard sizes or custom layouts. One type of mechanical solution to the problem of powering the wheel in a drive/steer module has been done with great success on several sophisticated research robots and is commonly called a syncrodrive. A syncro-drive (Figure 6-7) normally uses three or four wheels. All are driven and steered in unison, synchronously. This allows fully holonomic steering (the ability to head in any direction without first requiring moving forward). As can be seen in the sketch, the drive motor is directly above the wheel. An axle goes down through the center of the steering shaft and is coupled to the wheel through a right angle gearbox. This layout is probably the best to use if relying heavily on dead reckoning because it produces little rotational error. Although the dominant dead-reckoning error is usually produced by things in the environment, this system theoretically has the least internal error. The four-wheeled layout is not well suited for anything but flat terrain unless at least one wheel module is made vertically compliant. This is possible, but would produce the complicated mechanism shown in Figure 6-8.
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Steering History
Figure 6-8 Drive/steer module with vertical compliance
All-terrain cycles (ATCs), when they were legal, ran power through a differential to the two rear wheels, and steered with the front wheel in a standard tricycle layout. ATCs clearly pointed out the big weakness of this layout, the tendency to fall diagonally to one side of the front wheel in a tight turn. Mobility was moderately good with a human driver, but was not inherently so. Quads are the answer to the stability problems of ATCs. Four wheels make them much more stable, and many are produced with four wheel drive, enhancing their mobility greatly although they cannot turn in place. They are, of course, designed to be controlled by humans, who can foresee obstacles and figure out how to maneuver around them. If a mobility system in their size range is needed, they may be a good place to start. They are mass-produced, their price is low, and they are a mature product. Quads are manufactured by a number of companies and are available in many size ranges offering many different mobility capabilities. As the number of wheels goes up, so does the variety of steering methods. Most are based on variations of the types already mentioned, but one is quite different. In Figure 4-30 ( Four), the vehicle is divided into 2 sections connected by a vertical axis joint. This layout is common on large industrial front-end loaders and provides very good steering ability even though it cannot turn in place. The layout also
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