vb.net barcode reader usb Figure 10-5 Cantilevered manipulator geometry in Software

Drawing Data Matrix in Software Figure 10-5 Cantilevered manipulator geometry

Figure 10-5 Cantilevered manipulator geometry
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arm segments are supported, gantry and cantilevered. Mounted on the front of a robot, the first two DOF of a cantilevered Cartesian manipulator can move left/right and up/down; the Y-axis is not necessarily needed on a mobile robot because the robot can move back/forward. Figure 10-5 shows a cantilevered layout with three DOF. Though not the best solution to the problem of working off the front of a robot, it will work. It has the benefit of requiring a very simple control algorithm.
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CYLINDRICAL
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The second type of manipulator work envelope is cylindrical. Cylindrical types usually incorporate a rotating base with the first segment able to telescope or slide up and down, carrying a horizontally telescoping segment. While they are very simple to picture and the work envelope is fairly intuitive, they are hard to implement effectively because they require two linear motion segments, both of which have moment loads in them caused by the load at the end of the upper arm. In the basic layout, the control code is fairly simple, i.e., the angle of the base, height of the first segment, and extension of the second segment. On a robot, the angle of the base can simply be the angle of the chassis of the robot itself, leaving the height and extension of the second segment. Figure 10-6 shows the basic layout of a cylindrical three-DOF manipulator arm. A second geometry that still has a cylindrical work envelope is the SCARA design. SCARA means Selective Compliant Assembly Robot Arm. This design has good stiffness in the vertical direction, but some compliance in the horizontal. This makes it easier to get close to the right location and let the small compliance take up any misalignment. A SCARA manipulator replaces the second telescoping joint with two vertical axis-pivoting joints. Figure 10-7 shows a SCARA manipulator.
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Figure 10-6 Three-DOF cylindrical manipulator
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Figure 10-7 A SCARA manipulator
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POLAR OR SPHERICAL
The third, and most versatile, geometry is the spherical type. In this layout, the work envelope can be thought of as being all around. In reality, though, it is difficult to reach everywhere. There are several ways to layout an arm with this work envelope. The most basic has a rotating base that carries an arm segment that can pitch up and down, and extend in and out (Figure 10-8). Raising the shoulder up (Figure 10-9) changes the envelope somewhat and is worth considering in some cases. Figures 10-10, 10-11, and 10-12 show variations of the spherical geometry manipulator.
Figure 10-8 Basic polar coordinate manipulator
Figure 10-9 High shoulder polar coordinate manipulator with offset joint at elbow
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Figure 10-10 High shoulder polar coordinate manipulator with overlapping joints
Figure 10-11 Articulated polar coordinate manipulator
Figure 10-12 Gun turret polar coordinate manipulator
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THE WRIST
The arm of the manipulator only gets the end point in the right place. In order to orient the gripper to the correct angle, in all three axes, a second set of joints is usually required the wrist. The joints in a wrist must twist up/down, clockwise/counter-clockwise, and left/right. They must pitch, roll, and yaw respectively. This can be done all-in-one using a ballin-socket joint like a human hip, but controlling and powering this type is difficult. Most wrists consist of three separate joints. Figures 10-13, 10-14, and 10-15 depict one, two, and three-DOF basic wrists each building on the previous design. The order of the degrees of freedom in a wrist has a large effect on the wrist s functionality and should be chosen carefully, especially for wrists with only one or two DOF.
Figure 10-13 Single-DOF wrist (yaw)
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Figure 10-14 Two-DOF wrist (yaw and roll)
Figure 10-15 Three-DOF wrist (yaw, roll, and pitch)
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GRIPPERS
The end of the manipulator is the part the user or robot uses to affect something in the environment. For this reason it is commonly called an end-effector, but it is also called a gripper since that is a very common task for it to perform when mounted on a robot. It is often used to pick up dangerous or suspicious items for the robot to carry, some can turn doorknobs, and others are designed to carry only very specific things like beer cans. Closing too tightly on an object and crushing it is a major problem with autonomous grippers. There must be some way to tell how hard is enough to hold the object without dropping it or crushing it. Even for semi-autonomous robots where a human controls the manipulator, using the gripper effectively is often difficult. For these reasons, gripper design requires as much knowledge as possible of the range of items the gripper will be expected to handle. Their mass, size, shape, and strength, etc. all must be taken into account. Some objects require grippers that have many jaws, but in most cases, grippers have only two jaws and those will be shown here. There are several basic types of gripper geometries. The most basic type has two simple jaws geared together so that turning the base of one
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