vb.net barcode reader from webcam Introduction to RobotBASIC 2.1 Running RobotBASIC 2.2 The RobotBASIC IDE in Software

Encoder QR Code in Software Introduction to RobotBASIC 2.1 Running RobotBASIC 2.2 The RobotBASIC IDE

2 Introduction to RobotBASIC 2.1 Running RobotBASIC 2.2 The RobotBASIC IDE
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2.2.1 The Editor Screen 2.2.2 The Terminal Screen 2.2.3 The Help Screen
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2.3 Creating, Running, and Saving a Program 2.4 The Robot Simulator
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2.4.1 Initializing the Robot 2.4.2 Animating the Robot 2.4.3 Moving Around Obstacles
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2.5 Summary 2.6 Exercises
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xii CONTENTS
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3 RobotBASIC Sensors 3.1 Some Programming Constructs
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3.1.1 3.1.2 3.1.3 3.1.4 3.1.5 3.2.1 3.2.2 3.2.3 3.2.4 3.3.1 3.3.2 3.3.3 3.3.4 3.3.5 Comments Conditional Statements Comparison Operators Loops Binary Numbers Bumper Sensor Avoiding Collisions Improving Ef ciency Making Better Decisions Infrared Sensors Ultrasonic and Infrared Ranging Robot Vision Beacon Detection Customizable Sensors
19 19
20 20 21 21 21
3.2 Avoiding Collisions Using Bumpers
23 24 25 25
3.3 Other Sensors for Object Detection
26 27 27 28 28
3.4 Other Instruments
3.4.1 Compass 3.4.2 Global Positioning 3.4.3 Battery Charge Level
29 29 30
3.5 Summary 3.6 Exercises 4 Remote Control Algorithms 4.1 Some Programming Constructs
4.1.1 4.1.2 4.1.3 4.1.4 4.1.5 4.1.6 Variables The Keyboard The Mouse Output to the Screen Loops Functions
30 30 33 34
34 35 35 36 36 38
4.2 Simple Remote Control
4.2.1 First Style of Remote Control 4.2.2 Second Style of Remote Control
38 40
4.3 Complex Remote Control
4.3.1 The Mathematics 4.3.2 The Pen 4.3.3 Subroutines
41 44 44
CONTENTS xiii
4.4 Remote Controlled Test Bench 4.5 Summary 4.6 Exercises 5 Random Roaming 5.1 What Is Random Roaming 5.2 Some Programming Constructs
5.2.1 Labels and Subroutines 5.2.2 Commands 5.2.3 Operators
47 47 49 51 52 52
53 54 54
5.3 Adding Objects to the Roaming Environment
5.3.1 DrawObjects Subroutines 5.3.2 RoamAround Subroutines
57 58
5.4 More Intelligent Roaming
5.4.1 Using Sensory Information More Effectively
5.5 Improved Obstacle Avoidance
5.5.1 A First Improvement 5.5.2 A Second Improvement 5.5.3 Further Improvements
61 61 62
5.6 Summary 5.7 Exercises 6.1 6.2 6.3 6 Debugging Before You Program Plan Plan Plan Debugging Philosophy
6.3.1 6.3.2 6.3.3 6.3.4 6.4.1 6.4.2 6.4.3 6.4.4 Isolating the Fault Locating the Fault Correcting the Problem Patience Patience Patience The Debug Command Stepping Through a Program Viewing the Infrared Beams Viewing Bumper LEDs
63 63 65 66 66 67
67 67 68 68
6.4 Debugging with RobotBASIC
69 70 71 71
6.5 Summary 6.6 Exercises
71 72
xiv CONTENTS
PART 2 DEVELOPING A TOOLBOX OF BEHAVIORS 7 Following a Line 7.1 The Base Program 7.2 An Initial Algorithm
7.2.1 Reading the Line Sensors 7.2.2 A First Attempt 7.2.3 An Improvement
73 75 76 77
79 79 80
7.3 Sharp Turns Cause a Problem
7.3.1 7.3.2 7.3.3 7.3.4 Possible Solutions A First Strategy A Second Strategy Very Sharp Turns
80 81 82 82
7.4 Random Roaming with Line-Following (Racetrack)
7.4.1 The RoamAround Subroutine 7.4.2 The InitializeRobot Subroutine 7.4.3 The Data Statement and mPolygon Command
85 85 85
7.5 Summary 7.6 Exercises 8 Following a Wall 8.1 Constructing a Wall 8.2 A Basic Algorithm
8.2.1 Problems with the Basic Algorithm 8.2.2 Improving the Algorithm 8.2.3 Using the Bumpers
87 88 89 89 91
91 92 93
8.3 Staying Close on Sharp Corners
8.3.1 Initial Algorithm 8.3.2 Finding the Problem 8.3.3 Solving the Problem
94 95 96
8.4 A Different Approach 8.5 Summary 8.6 Exercises 9 Avoiding Drop Offs and Restricted Areas 9.1 Good Robot
9.1.1 An Initial Algorithm 9.1.2 Improving the Algorithm 9.1.3 A Better Algorithm
96 100 101 103 104
104 105 106
9.2 Cliff Hanger
CONTENTS xv
9.3 GPS Con nement
9.3.1 9.3.2 9.3.3 9.3.4 9.3.5 The Speci cations Main Program RoamAround Subroutine DrawBoundary Subroutine TestViolation Subroutine
112 113 113 115 115
9.4 Summary 9.5 Exercises 10 Vector Graphics Robot 10.1 DrawBot
10.1.1 10.1.2 10.1.3 10.1.4 Drawing Drawing Drawing Drawing Circles Rectangles Triangles any Shape
119 120 121 122
122 123 124 126
10.2 ABC Robot
10.2.1 The Speci cations
10.3 Summary 10.4 Exercises PART 3 COMPLEX COMPOUND BEHAVIORS 11 Mowing and Sweeping Robot 11.1 Sweeper Robot
11.1.1 11.1.2 11.1.3 11.1.4 The Base Program A First Attempt An Improvement Further Improvements
134 134 137 139 139
140 140 140 144
11.2 Mowing Robot
11.2.1 The Speci cations 11.2.2 The Program 11.2.3 A Shortcoming
147 147 153
11.3 Further Thoughts
11.3.1 11.3.2 11.3.3 11.3.4 Considering the Batteries Limited Coverage Around Obstacles Using GPS Grids A Reality Check
154 154 155 155
11.4 Summary 11.5 Exercises
155 156
xvi CONTENTS
12 Locating a Goal 12.1 Using a Beacon
12.1.1 12.1.2 12.1.3 12.1.4 12.1.5 12.1.6 12.1.7 12.1.8 The Algorithm The Main Program Creating a Cluttered Room Facing the Beacon Moving Toward the Beacon Going Around an Obstacle Determining If the Beacon Is Found A Potential Problem
157 158
158 159 159 160 160 161 162 162
12.2 12.3 12.4 12.5
Using a Beacon and Camera Using a GPS and Compass Summary Exercises
163 165 166 166 169 170 171
172 172 172
13 Charging the Battery 13.1 The Robot s Battery 13.2 Real-World Charging
13.2.1 Finding the Station 13.2.2 The Charging Station 13.2.3 Ensuring a Proper Approach Angle
13.3 The Simulation
13.3.1 Subroutines Hierarchy Chart 13.3.2 The Program
173 174
13.4 Summary 13.5 Exercises 14 Negotiating a Maze 14.1 A Random Solution
14.1.1 The Program 14.1.2 Observations
179 179 181 182
182 188
14.2 A Directed Random Solution 14.3 A Minimized Randomness Solution
14.3.1 14.3.2 14.3.3 14.3.4 14.3.5 14.3.6 A Corridor Maze The Program Generating the Maze Solving the Maze Renegotiating the Maze Embedded Debug Commands
189 190
191 191 191 191 198 198
CONTENTS xvii
14.4 A Mapped Solution
14.4.1 14.4.2 14.4.3 14.4.4 14.4.5 14.4.6 Mapping the Maze The Program Creating the Map s Graph Solving the Maze Finding a Path The Optimal Path
199 200 200 200 204 204
14.5 Final Thoughts 14.6 Summary 14.7 Exercises 15 Negotiating a Home or Of ce 15.1 The Design Process 15.2 An Of ce Messenger Robot
15.2.1 15.2.2 15.2.3 15.2.4 15.2.5 15.2.6 15.2.7 15.2.8 The Of ce Speci cations The Main Program and Subroutines Hierarchy Chart The User Interface Drawing the Of ce and Placing the Robot Mapping the Of ce Waiting for a Command Executing the Command Recharging the Battery
206 206 207 209 210 210
211 211 212 216 219 224 225 227
15.3 A Reality Check
15.3.1 Counteracting Motor Slip with a GPS and Compass 15.3.2 No GPS or Compass (Slip Is Corrected by Hardware) 15.3.3 Resilience Against Slip Using Beacons
229 230 235
15.4 Further Thoughts 15.5 Summary 15.6 Exercises PART 4 GOING FURTHER 16 True Intelligence: Adaptive Behavior 16.1 Adaptive Behavior
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