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15.3 A Reality Check
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When you combine Figs. 15.1, 15.3, and 15.5 with 15.8 to 15.11 and run the program you will see the system working perfectly well. The robot goes from room to room as commanded and the recharge docking procedure works as expected. However, this is not a real situation. The simulation in Sec. 15.2 is unrealistic in two ways:
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1. Rarely do robots go forward the amount commanded without slipping or turning.
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Most robots use gears that have play due to manufacturing tolerances and wear and tear. Also wheels tend to slip and motors tend to behave differently, all resulting in inaccurate movement of the robot. So the movement you expect is not what you get. 2. Compasses and GPSs are relatively expensive and generally not as accurate as desired. Affordable electronic compasses are often only accurate to 5 not 1 as we would
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like. Most GPS systems are accurate to a few yards at best, not inches as we would like, and most GPS receivers will not work indoors. You can use encoders and feedback control to help ensure that the robot moves as expected, and there are ways to make an LPS that can be accurate to very small resolutions and work indoors. However, these solutions can be expensive and dif cult to implement. Can we devise solutions in software rather than hardware (or just simple hardware) that would make our algorithm resilient to these de ciencies We will explore three potential solutions in the next section and discuss further possibilities in the section after that.
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15.3.1 COUNTERACTING MOTOR SLIP WITH A GPS AND COMPASS A real robot has a certain amount of randomness inherent in its movement. Wheels slip slightly on the oor. The friction associated with wheel-bearings and gears varies with temperature, wear, grease quantity, and so on. No two motors have exactly the same speci cations. This means that no matter how precise you try to make a real robot, it will never be able to repeat its actions exactly unless you use sophisticated electronics and control methods to counteract the problem. RobotBASIC has the ability to simulate the above limitations. If you issue the command rSlip the robot will add a 2 percent error when turning and forwarding. If you include an argument for this statement, you can specify the percent of error you want. You can specify a 10 percent error, for example, if you use rSlip 10. See Sec. C.9 for more information. To examine how this problem affects the algorithm in Sec. 15.2, a variable at the top of Fig. 15.1 called SlipValue has been set. We also have the statement rSlip SlipValue in the PlaceRobot subroutine in Fig. 15.5. Notice that SlipValue is set to 0. Try changing this value to 5, 10, 20, 50, and 70 to see how it affects the robot. The algorithm in Sec. 15.2 assumed an ideal robot that moves as commanded. When we simulate a real robot though, the algorithm fails. Can the algorithm be modi ed to resolve this issue In order to resolve the problem we need to understand why the algorithm fails. Of course it failed because the robot did not move as expected, but this is not the direct reason for failure. If you do a search on the code of the entire program you will nd that the commands rTurn and rForward are used in only two subroutines: GotoPoint and DockWithCharger. The direct reason the algorithm fails is due to the fact that the robot does not arrive at the expected intermediate node. The GotoPoint subroutine calculates the heading to turn then turns the robot to that heading. It does not check that the robot actually turned to exactly that heading. Also the algorithm calculates the distance to the point and forwards the robot that amount. It again does not check that the robot actually moved that distance without turning or slipping. The indirect reason for the failure is motor/wheel slip, but the direct reason is that the algorithm does not verify that the robot actually arrived at the desired coordinates. So all we need to do is modify the algorithm of GotoPoint to ensure that the robot actually arrives at the desired point.
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