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FIGURE 15.13
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Simulating an INS but no slip is allowed.
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DockWithCharger: GoalNode = NodesCount-1 gosub MoveToRoom TurnAmount = 180 gosub TurnRobot while not (rBumper()&1) ForwardAmount = -1 gosub ForwardRobot wend delay ChargeDelay rCharge 100 Return //============================================================= //============================================================= //--- Subroutine ForwardRobot //--- Inputs : ForwardAmount,RobotHeading,RobotX,RobotY //--- Outputs : RobotX,RobotY //--- Calls To: none //--//--- Moves the robot the ForwardAmount (+ or -) and //--- maintains track of the robot's INS position //------------------------------------------------------------ForwardRobot: rForward ForwardAmount Angle = 90-RobotHeading if ForwardAmount < 0 Angle = Angle-180 ForwardAmount = abs(ForwardAmount) endif if Angle <= -180 then Angle = Angle+360 if Angle > 180 then Angle = Angle -360 Angle = Angle*pi()/180 dX = CartX(ForwardAmount,Angle) dY = CartY(ForwardAmount,Angle) RobotX = RobotX+dX RobotY = RobotY-dY Return //============================================================= //============================================================= //--- Subroutine TurnRobot //--- Inputs : TurnAmount,RobotHeading //--- Outputs : RobotHeading //--- Calls To: none //--//--- Turns the robot the TurnAmount (+ or -) and //--- maintains track of the robot's INS heading //------------------------------------------------------------TurnRobot: rTurn TurnAmount RobotHeading = RobotHeading+rounddn(TurnAmount) if RobotHeading < 0 then RobotHeading = RobotHeading+360 if RobotHeading > 359 then RobotHeading = RobotHeading-360 Return //=============================================================
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FIGURE 15.13
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15.3.3 RESILIENCE AGAINST SLIP USING BEACONS The two previous algorithms showed how to make the robot more practical, but as seen, even these techniques have their limitations. Let s look at an entirely different way for the robot to deal with its environment. We need a means of knowing when the robot arrives at the desired commanded point. If we install a collection of beacons in the ceiling of the of ce above each node (see Fig. 15.7) and we give the robot a remote control that can switch individual beacons on and off (using a coded signal), we can have a means for the robot to be able to home in on a desired location as in Chap. 12. The robot moves along a designated path by switching the beacons on one at a time along the path. After locating and moving to a beacon, it switches the beacon off and turns on the next one and continues doing this in sequence until the nal goal is reached. The robot is always guaranteed to reach the beacon by this homing algorithm. The overall behavior of the robot (moving to each node) is the same as before but the robot responds correctly without a compass or GPS and with no expensive slip counteracting hardware. This idea is implemented with the code in Fig. 15.14. In the DockWithCharger routine we use the beacon at the door of the charging room to orient the robot to north. Set SlipValue to some number other than zero (20 is a good test) and replace the subroutines in Fig. 15.12 with the ones in Fig. 15.14. Note that the subroutine CheckObstacles (Fig. 15.12) uses the GPS to nd the distance from the mouse pointer to the robot. This is only to simulate obstacles in the robots way. We continue to use the GPS in this routine because it does not impact our goal of creating a practical robot.
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15.4 Further Thoughts
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The of ce or home robot discussed in this chapter is a very practical and useful application and is de nitely achievable. All the hardware required by the simulated system can be implemented with current technology. Some of this technology can be expensive, but the beacon algorithm proposed in Fig. 15.14 is easily attainable with a modest budget. Those with a larger budget and access to more sophisticated electronics can implement the more complex but more robust alternatives using a GPS or INS. Perhaps some company will realize the value of the beacon system described in this chapter. We suspect many hobbyists would purchase a set of remote controlled beacons (or beacons that emit a coded identi er) if they were available at a reasonable price. Such a product would make a useful home/of ce robot very feasible. The INS alternative required no slip as implemented in Fig. 15.13. However, we can achieve some tolerance for slip if we could ensure a method for updating the robot with a corrected position and heading at, say, each node in the path network (see Fig. 15.7). We also may have to redesign the path network to include more nodes and thus more frequent updates and less distance during which the robot can incur errors. We can place some form of identifying device at the nodes [perhaps magnetic encoded pulses or radio frequency identi cation tags (RFID)], which the robot can use to identify the node it is currently at. Combined with the Nodes[ ] array the robot can update its x, y position. To update the heading the node can be given a way of telling the robot where north is and the robot can correct its assumed heading value. If you look at Fig. 15.7 you may get an idea of
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