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FIGURE 2.7 Program to make the robot move around.
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FIGURE 2.8 Program that causes the robot to crash into a wall.
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FIGURE 2.9 Robot crash.
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The program in Fig. 2.8 causes the robot to crash into the north wall and Fig. 2.9 is displayed. The error message indicates this fact, after which the program is halted. A similar situation occurs if the robot collides with an object in the room. Perhaps you are wondering how we can make the robot avoid crashing into objects and walls. In order for the robot to avoid obstacles it has to be able to detect them. This is achieved by giving the robot the ability to sense objects in the environment. We will study various sensory systems in Chap. 3, but for now, we will make the robot avoid objects manually. 2.4.3 MOVING AROUND OBSTACLES Let us place some objects in the room and see if we can make the robot move around them. We will do this by telling the robot how to move. This is not the most effective way, since objects in the room can change position. If we build into the robot how to avoid objects and make assumptions about where these objects are, then, when the environment changes, the robot may crash because it does not have an up-to-date plan. A better method would be to have the robot avoid any objects it encounters automatically by sensing its way around the environment. We will learn how to do this in Chap. 5 and other chapters. For now we will only use the commands we have learned so far, albeit the robot won t be as intelligent as it could be if it had senses and could decide on its own how to move around and avoid objects. Without autonomous decision-making, a robot is really just a remote controlled vehicle. To simulate objects in the room we are going to use RobotBASIC s graphics commands to draw on the screen circles and rectangles. The two commands are:
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These commands will draw a circle or rectangle bounded by the coordinates X1, Y1, X2, and Y2 with the outline being PenColor and the inside lled with the FillColor. For more detailed information on these and other graphics commands see Sec. C.7. Type the
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INTRODUCTION TO ROBOTBASIC
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01 02 03 04 05 06 07 08 09 10
rectangle 300,300,500,500,red,red circle 100,100,200,200,blue,blue circle 600,500,700,550,magenta,magenta rlocate 50,50 rturn 90 rforward 700 rturn 90 rforward 500 End
FIGURE 2.10 Program to manually negotiate around obstacles.
program in Fig. 2.10 and run it. The line numbers are not needed they are in the gure for the purpose of the following discussion. In Lines 01 to 03 we create the obstacles. In Line 05 we locate the robot at the top left-hand corner. We aim to make the robot reach the bottom right-hand corner. Notice how the commands in Lines 06 to 09 achieve this. What will happen if we change the number 700 in Line 03 to 770 Change the number and see the result. You can now appreciate the problem of telling the robot how to move. It is not as versatile as automatically deciding on a moving strategy. A program that tells the robot how to move to get from one place to another will have to be modi ed every time the environment changes. Imagine if we could write a program that enables the robot to move around regardless of the details of the environment. This is what autonomous mobile robot programming is all about, and RobotBASIC simulations help you develop algorithms that achieve this goal. We will see many examples of this in later chapters.
2.5 Summary
In this chapter you have learned: How to obtain a copy of RobotBASIC and how to install and run it. About the various IDE screens and their functionalities. How to create, save, edit, and run programs. How to initialize a robot simulation and locate the robot on the screen. How to move the robot around the screen. What happens if the robot crashes into walls or objects. How to draw graphics on the screen to simulate objects in a room. Now, try to do the exercises in the next section. If you have dif culty read the hints.
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