vb.net barcode reader from webcam Controlling the Real Robot in Software

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17.3 Controlling the Real Robot
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There are various ways you can give a robot a brain:
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1. You can program a microcontroller with all the necessary software to interrogate
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transducers (sensors) and activate actuators (motors). The same microcontroller can be used to implement the algorithms to create intelligence. However, unless your AI tasks are simple, most microcontrollers lack the memory space and math engines to be able to achieve a complex AI. 2. You can mount a PC (laptop) on top of the robot and use it to control the robot through a combination of serial (USB or RS-232), parallel port, and ISA BUS based hardware. This solution gives you all the power of a PC to execute effective AI programs. Also the software development cycle becomes easier, since there is no need for cross-compilers and plugging and unplugging of hardware and wires. However, unless your robot is quite large and is capable of supplying lots of AC or DC power, this solution can be unwieldy. 3. You can use a microcontroller on the robot that has the ability of doing all the interrogation of the transducers and activation of actuators. This microcontroller would need
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GOING FURTHER
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additional software to be able to communicate with a PC wirelessly (or wired but with less mobility). In this case, the PC would have software to carry out the task of AI. The PC receives from the microcontroller the status of the robot s sensors and applies the AI algorithms and then sends the desired actuations back to the microcontroller. The microcontroller receives the commands from the PC and acts upon them. This method has many advantages, one of which is distributed computing. This way you can have one PC controlling many robots or many microcontrollers on the same robot. Additionally, you can envisage projects where the PC receives data from various widely distributed sites to be able to determine the appropriate command sequence for the robot s situation. The robot s microcontroller can be simple, yet able to achieve a lot due to the distributed computing, and sensing power that this option provides. In the next section we will discuss how you can translate the algorithms you develop using RobotBASIC s simulated robot, to a real robot using each of the three methods above.
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17.3.1 CONTROL BY A MICROCONTROLLER One of the easiest and most straightforward ways of using the algorithms developed in this book with other robots is to translate the RobotBASIC programs into the native language of the target robot s microcontroller. We will use the PBASIC language used by Parallax s BS2 controller, but the principles shown here can be applied to any language on any microcontroller. Let s look at a speci c example to make the translation process easy to follow. If you recall, Chap. 7 developed algorithms for following a line. Figure 17.13 shows one of the algorithms from that chapter. In order to follow a line, the code in Fig. 17.13 relies on the two RobotBASIC commands, rForward and rTurn and the function rSense(). The command rForward moves the robot forward a speci ed amount. Likewise, rTurn rotates the robot as requested. The function rSense() returns a number with the lower three binary bits representing the line sensors as discussed in Chap. 7. In order to convert the code in Fig. 17.13 to Parallax s PBASIC, we need three subroutines to duplicate the functionality supplied by RobotBASIC. We will assume we have these subroutines and three variables as described below. We are using PBASIC syntax here to provide a concrete example, but the concepts (and even most of the syntax) apply to many other microcontroller languages. If you are familiar with the language of the
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