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while true rForward 1 while rSense() & 1 rTurn 1 wend while rSense() & 4 rTurn -1 wend wend
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FIGURE 17.13
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This algorithm to follow a line was developed in Chap. 7.
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microcontroller you wish to use, you should be able to create programs for it that emulate most of the commands and functions in RobotBASIC.
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Subroutine
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FORWARD TURN SENSE
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DIST ANGLE SENSORS
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Action when the subroutine is called
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Moves the robot forward by the amount specified by the variable DIST. Rotates the robot by the amount specified by the variable ANGLE. Places a value in the variable SENSORS indicating the status of the 3 line sensors.
We will develop the code for each of these subroutines in a moment, but for now just assume that we have them. They are slightly harder to use than their RobotBASIC equivalents. Instead of issuing the command rForward 6, for example we would have to do the following:
DIST 6 GOSUB FORWARD
Reacting to the line sensors is almost as easy. Compare the two code fragments below. They demonstrate examples of the subroutines TURN and SENSE.
RobotBASIC Code
If rSense( ) = 6 rTurn 2 endif
PBASIC Equivalent
GOSUB SENSE IF SENSORS = 6 THEN ANGLE = 2 GOSUB TURN ENDIF
As you can see, it is very easy to create code that emulates the simulator s capabilities as long as we have subroutines that provide the functionality normally handled by RobotBASIC. Figure 17.14 shows the PBASIC version of the code in Fig. 17.13. The rst three lines in the gure are comments. The rst two comments are directives to the compiler, informing it which processor to generate code for (refer to Parallax s documentation for more information). The PBASIC compiler requires that each variable be declared. The second section of code in Fig. 17.13 establishes all three variables with a size of Nib (4 bits). PBASIC also has a byte size (8 bits) and a word size (16 bits), but due to the small memory (often typical on microcontrollers), you should never use more bits for variables than your program needs. As you proceed through the code, you reach the main portion of the program. PBASIC has several types of loops, but in this example we are using a do-loop that loops continuously until one of the if-statements forces it to exit. The PBASIC compiler can be downloaded from the Parallax web site and contains extensive help. The program in Fig. 17.14 should be easily compared to Fig. 17.13. You will notice that the three subroutines that do all the work have been left blank (except for comments). Each of these routines must access the controller s I/O ports in order to turn on motors or read data from the line sensors. These actions must be tailored to the processor you
GOING FURTHER
' {$STAMP BS2} ' {$PBASIC 2.5} '========================================================== ' variables must be declared first DIST VAR Nib SENSORS VAR Nib ANGLE VAR Nib '========================================================== DO DIST = 1 GOSUB FORWARD DO GOSUB SENSE IF NOT(SENSORS & 1) THEN EXIT ANGLE = 1 GOSUB TURN LOOP DO GOSUB SENSE IF NOT(SENSORS & 4) THEN EXIT ANGLE = -1 GOSUB TURN LOOP LOOP '========================================================== FORWARD: ' place code here to make the robot ' move forward DIST units RETURN '========================================================== TURN: ' place code here to make the robot ' rotate ANGLE units RETURN '========================================================== SENSE: ' place code here to read the line ' sensors and give SENSORS the ' appropriate value RETURN
FIGURE 17.14
This code is the PBASIC equivalent to Fig. 17.13.
are using and to the speci c I/O ports to which you have attached your motors and sensors. Parallax s BS2 processor has 16 I/O pins. We will connect the two servo motors to I/O pins 12 and 13. The connections for the three QTI line sensors (modi ed to operate in a digital mode as described in Sec. 17.2) will use pins 7, 8, 9, and 4 as described later. The servomotors are controlled by pulsing them with the PBASIC statement PULSOUT 12,750. This statement sends a pulse of 750 units (each unit on the BS2 is approximately 2 microseconds) to the device attached to I/O pin 12. Sending a series of pulses with a duration of approximately 750 units will hold a continuous rotation servo motor (when properly calibrated as described in the Boe-Bot manual) in its current position, as if brakes are being applied. If the pulse is larger than 750 units then the motor will turn (lets say forward, but the direction is relative). The longer the pulse, the faster the motor will turn,
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