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FORWARD: ' move the number of units specified ' by the variable DIST DIR = 1 IF DIST&128 THEN DIR = 0 DIST = (DIST^255)+1 ENDIF FOR t = 1 TO DIST ' This code moves the robot about ' 1/4 inch on our prototype IF DIR = 1 THEN PULSOUT 12,775 PULSOUT 13,725 ELSE PULSOUT 12,725 PULSOUT 13,775 ENDIF PAUSE 10 NEXT RETURN
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FIGURE 17.15 This code moves the robot forward or backward as speci ed by the variable DIST.
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and it will keep turning as long as the pulses are periodically applied. If the pulse is less than 750 units, then the motor will turn in reverse. The smaller the pulse, the faster the motor will move. The FORWARD subroutine in Fig. 17.15 is an application of these principles. If you have limited experience with how to control a servomotor refer to the Boe-Bot s manual which has a lot of explanation on all this and many example programs for controlling the servo motors. The code in Fig. 17.15 is complicated by the fact that Parallax s PBASIC does not truly handle negative numbers. Mathematical operations create the proper negative results using two s complement binary numbers. Unfortunately, the numbers are always treated as positive so it is up to the programmer to interpret them properly. Many microcontrollers often have many limitations such as this. The beginning of the subroutine sets the variable DIR equal to one to indicate movement forward. The code then checks the sign bit of DIST and if it is negative it sets DIR to zero (indicating reverse) then converts DIST to its two s complement (effectively creating the absolute value of the original negative value). A for-loop is used to move the robot the speci ed number of units. The code inside the for-loop does all the work. Depending on whether the robot is to move forward or backward, the servomotors are pulsed to make the robot move about 1/4 in. Note that since the wheels are on opposite sides of the robot, one servo moves clockwise while the other moves counter-clockwise. This subroutine could have been made more accurate (and more complicated) if the code monitored wheel counters (see Sec. 17.2) instead of just timing the robot s movement. Accurate movements are not really needed for this application though, because the robot will constantly correct its movements based on the data from the line sensors. These corrections counteract any errors made by the movement routines.
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TURN: ' This subroutine will turn ' the number of units specified ' by the variable ANGLE DIR = 30 IF ANGLE&128 THEN DIR = 0 ANGLE = (ANGLE^255)+1 ENDIF FOR T = 1 TO ANGLE ' The following code turns the ' robot about 1 degrees PULSOUT 12,735+DIR PULSOUT 13,735+DIR PAUSE 15 NEXT PAUSE 10 RETURN
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FIGURE 17.16 This code rotates the robot in units speci ed by the variable ANGLE.
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The subroutine TURN is nearly the same as FORWARD. The major difference is that the two wheels move in opposite directions to cause the robot to rotate. Figure 17.16 shows the code for TURN. The numbers were chosen experimentally to make the robot move a very small angle for each unit speci ed by the variable ANGLE. Wheel counters (or even an accurate electronic compass) could have been used to increase the accuracy of this routine too. In order to get the proper pulse duration, the subroutine TURN sets the variable DIR to 30 for a right turn and to 0 for a left turn. The value of ANGLE is converted to its two s complement if the original value is negative. A for-loop then executes the code that turns the robot the requested number of times. The code inside the for-loop uses the value of DIR to control the pulses sent to the servos making the robot turn in the proper direction. The robot moves about 1 each time the for-loop is executed, but the actual amount is very inconsistent because the motors are attempting to move in such tiny increments. Again, this presents no problem for this example because the program is constantly adjusting positions based on the line sensors. As mentioned earlier, if more accurate movement is needed, you might consider using wheel counters or an electronic compass to monitor how far the robot actually turns (see Sec. 17.2). You can certainly make a real robot as accurate as our simulation, but the more accuracy you require, the more complicated and expensive your robot will be. This reminds us again of the advantage of using a simulator. You can learn to program a very powerful and expensive robot without the cost or hassles of dealing with hardware. Figure 17.17 shows the code to implement the SENSE subroutine. The power connection (the white wire) for each of the QTI sensors connects to I/O pins 7, 8 and 9 on the BS2. The output lines from all three sensors are connected to I/O pin 4. This may seem a bit unusual until you see how these sensors are operated. In order to get reliable operation it is important that the light from one sensor does not affect the detector for another. The code in Fig. 17.7 solves this problem. The power to each sensor is applied individually by forcing the appropriate pin high (5 V). After a short pause, the data from that sensor is read on pin 4 and placed into its proper bit position
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