vb.net barcode reader from webcam RELATING SIMULATIONS TO THE REAL WORLD in Software

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SENSE: ' This subroutine reads information ' from the line sensors and places ' the values into the variable SENSORS HIGH 7: PAUSE 1: SENSORS.BIT0 = IN4: INPUT 7 HIGH 8: PAUSE 1: SENSORS.BIT1 = IN4: INPUT 8 HIGH 9: PAUSE 1: SENSORS.BIT2 = IN4: INPUT 9 RETURN
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FIGURE 17.17
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The line sensor data is stored in the variable SENSORS.
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in the variable SENSORS. All the sensors can be read on the same pin because only one device is active at a time. After reading the data from a sensor, the power is removed by making the controlling pin an input. When the routines in Figs. 17.4 through 17.7 are combined and downloaded to the BS2, the Boe-Bot is ready to follow a line. Figure 17.18 shows an environment created with black electrical tape on white poster board. The real-world robot successfully followed the line. The movements generated by the FORWARD and TURN subroutines presented here work ne, but there is a slight jerky action often associated with servos. The Boe-Bot
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Board of education (parallax inc)
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Electric tape acts as a line Bumper sensor Turret
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Line sensor
QTI sensor acts as a dropoff sensor
FIGURE 17.18
Black electrical tape is an easy way to make a line to follow.
GOING FURTHER
documentation shows ways of ramping the servos up to speed to limit the jerks. Perfect routines that make a robot move forward and turn will depend on what microcontroller is used and the type of motors used (you might choose to use stepper or DC motors). Also you should consider adding additional sensors such as a compass and wheel counters to make your controlling subroutines as accurate as possible. Since this book is really not about hardware, the details of these functions are left as an exercise for the reader. The above examples will get you started if you desire to use RobotBASIC algorithms on a real robot. The details are cursory explanations for how to make a real microcontroller read sensors and activate motors. For more power and effectiveness you have to be familiar with your microcontroller of choice and you have to be familiar with many electronics principles too. Parallax s BS2 controller is relatively easy to use and programming it is much easier than programming many other microcontrollers. Also the PBASIC language is a very good language that enables you to utilize the BS2 effectively and with relative ease. However, you still need knowledge and skill in building and connecting electronic components. Introducing people with minimal skills to robotics using a simulator is an effective and motivating choice. The beginner gets to be skilled at devising robotic algorithms without having the opportunity to destroy expensive components. Also, people can start playing with a robot immediately without the frustration of having to build one before they truly understand it. Many readers will enjoy using the simulator and appreciate not having to deal with all the quirks of a physical robot. For others, we hope the information provided in this section helps you reach your goals.
17.3.2 CONTROL BY AN ONBOARD PC The approach used in the previous section works well for translating RobotBASIC algorithms for use on many of the embedded controllers used in robotics. If you need more memory or more processing power though, you might consider mounting a laptop computer directly on your robot. Doing so can give you all the computational power you should need for any project. It also means you won t have to write your code on one machine and download it to another. There are some disadvantages with using the laptop approach though. Since laptops are much larger than an embedded controller, the robot itself must be larger. This translates to bigger motors and larger batteries. In addition, you will need some way to interface the computer to your motors and sensors. Version 2.0.1 (and later) of RobotBASIC has built-in support for both serial and parallel ports. USB and Bluetooth are supported via virtual serial ports. You could use these ports to access sensors directly. The standard printer port on most PCs is bidirectional and can be multiplexed easily into four 8-bit input and four 8-bit output ports. In fact, RobotBASIC has special commands to handle the multiplexing hardware for you so that it appears to the programmer to actually have eight ports (see the RobotBASIC help les). These virtual-port commands assume you have the hardware shown in Fig. 17.19 appropriately connected to a printer port. The techniques demonstrated by this hardware could also be used to create multiple ports on a BS2 as mentioned earlier in Section 17.2.
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