vb.net barcode reader from webcam Avoiding Collisions Using Bumpers in Software

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3.2 Avoiding Collisions Using Bumpers
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The rst type of sensor we will consider is a set of collision detectors around the perimeter of the robot. In the real world these sensors could be bumpers mounted on simple leafswitches. When the robot collides with an object, the pressure causes one or more
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ROBOTBASIC SENSORS
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leaf-switches to close. The electronics of a real bumper system sends a logical 1 (collision detected) or 0 (no collision) for each sensor to its corresponding bits on a computer input port. The combination of these 1s and 0s form a binary number that indicates the state of the bumpers. This number can be obtained by using a function in the programming language controlling the robot and can be analyzed as a binary number or its equivalent in decimal to determine which bumpers have been activated. 3.2.1 BUMPER SENSORS The robot in RobotBASIC has four bumpers of the type described above. The front and rear bumpers each compose a 130 arc making them larger than the side bumpers, which are only 50 . Figure 3.2 shows how the bumpers are arranged. The number indicating the status of all four of the bumpers can be obtained using the function rBumper(). As you know from Chap. 2, all robot-related statements in RobotBASIC start with the letter r . Each of the four bits in the number obtained represents the state of one of the bumpers as indicated in Fig. 3.3. If, for example, the robot bumped into something directly ahead of it (pressing the front bumper) the binary number generated would be 0100 or 4 in base-10. If the robot was backing up and wedged itself into a corner where the back bumper and the left bumper were both pressed, then the number formed would be 1001, or 9 in base-10.
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Bumper # 3 0100 = 4 65 to 65 From Front
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Bumper # 4 100 = 8 25 to 25 From Left
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Bumper # 2 0010 = 2 25 to 25 From Right
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Bumper # 1 0001 = 1 65 to 65 From Back
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FIGURE 3.2 Four perimeter bumpers are used to detect collisions.
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Bumper Rear bumper Right bumper Front bumper Left bumper
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Bit position 20 (LSB) 21 22 23
Value 1 2 4 8
FIGURE 3.3 The conditions of the robot s bumpers form a binary number.
BUILDING BLOCKS
3.2.2 AVOIDING COLLISIONS Let s see how you can use this information to control the behavior of the robot. We will start by locating the robot near the center of the screen and making it move upward (north) using the program in Fig. 3.4. Since the robot will be pointed north when it is created, this program will make it move forward until it hits the north wall and causes an error. One way to avoid this error is to monitor the bumpers and stop moving the robot forward when they indicate that an object has been touched. The program in Fig. 3.5 shows how this can be done. If you are unfamiliar with any of the programming statements used here, refer to Sec. C.9. Instead of just telling the robot to move forward 500 times (as in Fig. 3.4), the program of Fig. 3.5 uses a for-next loop to make the robot consider moving forward 500 times. The if-then statement inside the loop checks the bumpers and if none of them are on (the value returned is 0) then the robot moves forward one position. Notice that when using a program to move the robot you will usually move the robot only one position at a time so we can monitor the environment before moving again. Figure 3.6 shows two example programs that perform similar actions to the program in Fig. 3.5, but using different RobotBASIC statements.
rLocate 400,300 //position the robot on the screen rForward 500 //--make the robot go forward 500 pixels End
FIGURE 3.4 This short program will cause a collision with the north wall.
rLocate 400,300 for a = 1 to 500 //--only go forward if bumpers are free if rBumper() = 0 then rForward 1 next End
FIGURE 3.5 This program checks 500 times to see if it can move forward and only moves if nothing is in the way.
rLocate 400,300 for a = 1 to 500 if rBumper() = 0 rForward 1 // more statements // can be placed here endif next End
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