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3.4 Other Instruments
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The robot in RobotBASIC has navigational instruments that enable it to determine its position and orientation. There is also a self-diagnosis instrument that enables it to check the condition of its battery.
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ROBOTBASIC SENSORS
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rLocate 400,300 while rCompass() < > 90 //east is 90 degrees rTurn 1 wend End
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FIGURE 3.13 The function rCompass() allows the robot to determine what direction it is facing.
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3.4.1 COMPASS RobotBASIC has a compass function, rCompass(), that returns the current direction, in degrees, the robot is facing. In the chapters that follow you will see how this function can be used to help our robot make better decisions about where it is and how it should move to get to a desired location. The program in Fig. 3.13 uses the compass to make the robot turn due east. Remember that north is up on the screen, south is down, east is to the right, and west is to the left. The compass in RobotBASIC is accurate to 1 . Inexpensive electronic compasses can rarely be this accurate. If you wish to simulate a compass that is accurate to 3 , for example, you can divide the value returned by rCompass() with the number 3 (forcing an integer divide) and then multiply the result by three as in the formula:
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3*(rCompass()/3)
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3.4.2 GLOBAL POSITIONING Nearly everyone nowadays is familiar with GPS systems in vehicles that display exactly where you are on a map. Our robot has two GPS functions, rGpsX() and rGpsY() that return the x and y values for the robot s position. The GPS in RobotBASIC is accurate to a single pixel. Standard real-world GPS systems are not this accurate, but the later chapters will discuss a variety of ways to circumvent this limitation. You can simulate a less accurate GPS system in the same way described to simulate a less accurate compass. The program in Fig. 3.14 shows how the robot can avoid the north wall by keeping track of its position and stopping when it is 10 pixels from the wall. It uses the function rGpsY() to nd its position on the screen (an x, y of 0, 0 is the upper-left corner). It moves while its y-coordinate is greater than 30. Remember the robot s default radius is 20 pixels; also the GPS functions report the position of the center of the robot; therefore we use the number 30 which means that the edge of the robot will be 10 pixels away from the north wall which has a y-coordinate of 0.
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rLocate 400,300 while rGPSy() >30 rForward 1 wend End
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FIGURE 3.14 The function rGpsY() allows the robot to determine its vertical position on the screen.
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BUILDING BLOCKS
3.4.3 BATTERY CHARGE LEVEL A reasonable requirement of any real mobile robot is that it should be able to monitor its battery condition and determine when a recharge is required. The function rChargeLevel() returns the percentage of battery life left. In Chap. 13 we will use this function as well as other sensors to teach our robot how to nd and utilize a charging station when the battery charge level is low.
3.5 Summary
In this chapter you were introduced to: Different programming structures (if-then, if-else-endif, while-wend, and for-next) and how they can be used to control the robot more effectively. Binary numbers in preparation for more powerful sensor manipulation. rBumper() and rFeel() and how they can be used to avoid crashing into objects in the robot s environment. Detecting objects at a distance with rRange(), rLook(), and rBeacon(). Navigational instruments with rCompass(), rGpsX(), and rGpsY(). Battery charge level information with rChargeLevel(). In subsequent chapters we will explore how to use sensors to solve realistic problems. For now try to solve the exercises in the next section. Try to do so without reading the hints, but by all means use the hints if you need to.
3.6 Exercises
1. Write a program to place a gray object at position 100, 200 on the screen and the
robot at 400, 300. The program should then make the robot face that object and report the distance to it. Can you predict what the value will be How accurate was your prediction Can you explain the difference
HINT:
Draw a circle to simulate the object and then use rBeacon() or rLook() in a loop to face the object. Use rRange() to nd the distance. Use the Print command to report the distance (see Sec. C.7).
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