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The program in Fig. 4.4 uses three subroutines, one to do the actual remote control tasks and a subroutine that will be used to calculate the distance and heading as discussed above and also make the robot go there. The third one is to place obstacles in the environment. In a program you invoke a subroutine by saying: gosub Subroutine_Name. Once the subroutine nishes its work the program will continue with the next line after the line where the subroutine was invoked. See Secs. B.6 and C.6 for details on gosub and other owcontrol structures. 4.3.3.1 The Implementation The algorithm is shown in Fig. 4.4 (don t type the line numbers). The result of the algorithm in Fig. 4.4 is shown in Fig. 4.5. 4.3.3.2 The MainProgram (Lines 01 06) The main routine calls the subroutine Draw_Obstacles then sets up the robot and then calls the RemoteControl subroutine. Once there, the subroutine will not end until you halt the program by closing the terminal window. The rInvisible command is issued to tell the robot to not consider the color dark gray as an obstacle. This color will also be used as a pen color when the pen is lowered since the command on Line 18 does not specify a color and thus the rst color in the invisible colors list will be used to draw with the pen by default.
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FIGURE 4.5 Result from running the program in Fig. 4.4. Notice the line trailing behind the robot. This is due to the pen being down when the robot moved.
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4.3.3.3 The RemoteControl Subroutine (Lines 07 29) This subroutine does all the work. It sets up an area at the top of the screen for displaying the current position and heading of the robot and also the state of the pen (Lines 08 11). Then it enters an endless loop (Lines 13 29). The loop is endless because the condition for the until is set to false, the loop never halts. Of course some condition inside the loop may call a Break command and cause a halt, but this does not happen in this program (see Secs. B.6 and C.6). Line 14 causes the mouse coordinates and button state to be saved in the variables x, y, and b. (See previous section or Sec. C.7 for the ReadMouse command). If you click the left mouse button the statement on Line 15 calls the GotoPoint subroutine to cause the robot to move to the point where the mouse was clicked. If you press the right mouse button the if-endif statement on Lines 16 to 20 causes the robot s pen to be toggled up or down just like a switch, if it is up it is put down, and if it is down it is put up (Line 17). The statement on Line 19 causes a Delay of 300 milliseconds. This is necessary due to the fact that you may press the mouse button for too long and the toggling will occur too fast for you to be able to maintain the desired state. This is the equivalent of making an edge detector. Lines 21 to 27 are executed if any mouse button is pressed. These lines read the robot s position and orientation using rGpsX(), rGpsY(), and rCompass(). Also the pen state (saved in the variable P) is already known. These data are put together in a string, which is printed at the top-left corner of the screen (Line 26). 4.3.3.2 The GotoPoint Subroutine (Lines 35 48) This subroutine is very important for the action of the program. The subroutine causes the robot to turn in the direction of the point indicated by the user, and then calculates the distance from the robot to that point then makes the robot move to that point. The robot will move as long as no obstacle causes the bumper to be closed. Lines 36 and 37 calculate x and y difference between the selected point and the robot s current position. Line 38 exits the subroutine if there is no difference. In Lines 39 to 42 the angle to turn is calculated and then the robot is turned by that angle. This calculation makes use of the function PolarA() discussed previously. This is then used to calculate the difference between the robot s heading and the heading to the point (Lines 39 41). Notice the formula on Line 39. We rst convert the angle reported by the PolarA() function to degrees using the conversion discussed above. Then we add 90 to it. This is (as discussed) to convert from 0 being east and thus 0 90 so we add 90. Then we subtract the robot s heading to get the difference between the heading to the point and the robot s heading. The next Lines 40 and 41 convert this to the smallest angle for the robot to turn intelligently to the required heading. Comment out these two lines and observe the effect on the way the robot turns toward the target. In Line 43 the distance to the point is calculated using the PolarR() function. The Round() function is used to make the distance an integer instead of a oat, so that it can be used as the limit for the for-next loop in the next line. Lines 44 to 47 cause the robot to go forward one pixel at a time while checking to see that the front bumper is not closed. If the bumper ever closes the loop is exited. If there are any commands or functions that are not clear to you, refer to Secs. C.7 and C.8 for details on how they are used and what parameters and options are available.
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