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RANDOM ROAMING
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The utility of all these operators will become clear as we proceed with developing programs throughout the book. See Sec. B.7.5 for detailed information on all operators available in RobotBASIC and how they can be used.
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5.3 Adding Objects to the Roaming Environment
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How will the algorithm in Fig. 5.1 cope when we introduce obstacles into the room To test this we will develop a subroutine that enables us to place objects of any shape in the room. Figure 5.4 shows a modi cation of the program in Fig. 5.1. This new program allows you to draw on the screen with the mouse to simulate placing objects in the robot s environment. Figure 5.3 shows a sample screen with objects that were drawn using the program in Fig. 5.4 (remember, do not type the line numbers). The sections below explain the details of how the commands, functions, and looping structures work together to achieve the program s action. The details may become challenging,
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FIGURE 5.3 The program in Fig. 5.4 allows you to draw objects on the screen.
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01 MainProgram: 02 gosub DrawObjects // let the user draw objects on the screen 03 gosub RoamAround 04 End //=============================================================== 06 RoamAround: 07 while true // roam forever 08 // move forward until an object is found 09 while rFeel( )=0 10 rForward 1 11 wend 12 // turn 180 degrees plus or minus 30 degrees 13 rTurn 150 + random (60) 14 wend 15 Return //=============================================================== 17 DrawObjects: // beginning of subroutine to draw objects 18 rLocate 400,300 // show robot so they know where to draw 19 print "Press the mouse key and hold it while you draw." 20 print "Release when you have completed drawing an object." 21 print "Repeat until you have drawn all the objects you want." 22 Print "Right click anywhere on the screen when finished" 23 Print "The robot will roam randomly while avoiding objects." 24 SetColor GREEN 25 LineWidth 3 26 FirstTime = true 27 while true 28 // wait till the user presses a mouse button 29 repeat 30 ReadMouse x,y,m 31 until m=1 or m=2 32 if FirstTime 33 ClearScr // clear the screen (remove the text) 34 rLocate 400,300 // put the robot back on the screen 35 FirstTime = false // only clear screen the first time 36 endif 37 if m = 2 then return 38 gotoxy x,y // set starting point for drawing 39 while m // as long as the mouse button is pressed 40 ReadMouse x,y,m // read a new position 41 LineTo x,y // and draw a line to it 42 wend 43 wend 44 Return // end of subroutine
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FIGURE 5.4 This program lets the robot roam around a room, avoiding objects drawn on the screen with the mouse.
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but study them carefully because the principles in this program will be utilized many times as you progress through the book. To put things in perspective we will explain the program s action in words and thus give an overall look at the program. Keep this in mind and refer to it as often as you need while reading the discussions in the next sections. The program is an implementation of the principles discussed in Sec. 5.2. There is a main program that calls subroutines as they become needed. This means that the main program, besides being self-documenting and easy to understand, is a manager for the overall program action.
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The rst action of the main program is to call the subroutine DrawObjects, which allows the user to draw on the screen to simulate objects in the robot s environment. Once the user nishes drawing, the subroutine returns to the main program. The main program then calls the RoamAround subroutine, which enters an endless loop that makes the robot move around the room while avoiding obstacles and walls. The DrawObjects subroutine accomplishes the following:
1. Display instructions and the initial location of the robot to the user. 2. The program will then repeatedly do the following things until the user clicks the right
mouse button: (a) Wait for the user to left-click the mouse. If this is the rst click, the program clears the screen (to get rid of the instructions) and then replaces the robot at the center of the screen. (b) As the mouse moves, the routine draws a line from the mouse s previous position to the new one until the user releases the left mouse button. 3. Once the user presses the right mouse button the program will exit the subroutine and return to the line that follows the line where the subroutine was called. Now with all the above in mind proceed to the next sections to learn how all this is achieved with the functions and commands available in RobotBASIC. 5.3.1 DrawObjects SUBROUTINE This subroutine allows the user to draw on the screen to simulate objects in the robot s environment. It achieves its action by printing instructions to the user of the program then keeps checking the mouse to see what buttons are being clicked. This subroutine also initializes the robot and locates it on the screen (Line 34). 5.3.1.1 Printing on the Screen The rst portion of the subroutine (Lines 19 23) consists of Print statements that display instructions to the user so that she/he knows what to do. Refer to Sec. C.7 to nd out about printing options. Also see the discussion in Chap. 4. 5.3.1.2 Drawing on the Screen Lines 24 and 25 specify the color and width of the lines that will be drawn. On Line 26 a variable FirstTime is set to true. We will see how this variable is used shortly. The while-loop on Line 27 ending on Line 43 surrounds the remainder of the routine causing that code to be repeatedly executed (once for every object that is drawn) until a Return statement is executed. 5.3.1.3 Reading Mouse Data The next section of code (Lines 29 to 31) is a repeat-until loop that executes the ReadMouse command until the user clicks the left or right mouse button. In this example, ReadMouse places the current coordinates of the mouse into the variables x and y and assigns a number to the variable m that speci es if and which buttons were pressed on the mouse. A value of 1 indicates the left button was clicked. A value of 2 means the right button was clicked. Notice the use of the logical OR in the until-statement. It causes the loop to wait until either of these events occurs and then execution continues with the if-statement on Line 32.
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