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FIGURE 5.6 Results when various bumper conditions are bitwise ANDed with the number 3 (0011).
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RoamAround: while true // forward until an object is found while rFeel( )=0 rForward 1 wend // try to intelligently turn away from the object if rFeel()&3 then Ta = -45 // object on right,turn left if rFeel()&24 then Ta = 45 // object on left,turn right if rFeel()&4 then Ta = 160 // object infront,turn around // turn Ta deg. plus a random amount no more than 40 deg. rTurn Ta+random(40)*sign(Ta) wend Return
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FIGURE 5.7 This subroutine shows one method for making our robot more intelligent as it roams the screen.
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5.5 Improved Obstacle Avoidance
Armed with more tools for analyzing the infrared data, lets improve the robot s ability to react to objects in its environment. All the improvements will be in the subroutine RoamAround. All the algorithms given from now on will be a replacement for this subroutine. In order to test the algorithm, replace the old subroutine in Fig. 5.4 with the new one given and run the program. 5.5.1 A FIRST IMPROVEMENT Let s see how the robot can use bitwise operations to make better decisions. Look at the subroutine in Fig. 5.7. The rst thing you will notice in Fig. 5.7 is the rTurn statement near the end. Instead of turning 150 plus a random amount as we did earlier, the program now turns an amount speci ed by the variable Ta plus a random amount. The key to the robot s new intelligence is choosing a proper value for Ta. Inside the main while-loop, after an object is encountered, three if-statements decide on an appropriate value for Ta. If there is an object on the right (if either of the right-side sensors are triggered) a left turn of 45 is speci ed. Similarly if either of the left-side sensors are triggered a right turn of 45 is used. If the front sensor alone, or in combination with other sensors is triggered, Ta is given a value of 160 to make the robot turn almost completely around (180 20 ). A random value is still added when the robot turns, but it is much lower than before because the robot is always turning in a reasonable direction anyway. Notice the use of the function Sign(Ta) to ensure that the random number is in the same direction as the turn. 5.5.2 A SECOND IMPROVEMENT The algorithm in Fig. 5.7 will turn the robot between 45 and 85 when it encounters an object on its left or right. If the turn causes the robot to still be facing an obstacle it will turn again a random amount. This will be repeated until the robot eventually nds a clear
BUILDING BLOCKS
RoamAround: while true while rFeel( )=0 // forward until an object is found rForward 1 wend // try to intelligently turn away from the object if rFeel()&3 then Ta = -90 //object on right,turn left if rFeel()&24 then Ta = 90 //object on left,turn right if rFeel()&4 then Ta = 180 //object ahead turnaround OldDist=0 for i=0 to Ta rTurn sign(Ta) NewDist = rRange() if NewDist < OldDist then break OldDist = NewDist next wend Return
FIGURE 5.8 This subroutine turns the robot toward an open space.
path. However, the robot would be a lot more intelligent if, while turning, it had a way of stopping as soon as it senses a possible clear path. This way instead of turning a xed amount, which may cause it to miss an opening while it is turning, we can make the robot stop turning when it sees an opening. One way to do this is to have the robot use its range-sensor to measure the distance to objects as it turns. Generally, the distance should get larger as the robot turns away from the object it has just encountered. If we stop the robot turning as soon as the distance starts to decrease, indicating a possible new obstacle, the robot will be able to turn until it avoids the obstacle, but not until it encounters another. This allows the robot to make more intelligent turning decisions. The routine in Fig. 5.8 shows how this can be accomplished. The algorithm in Fig. 5.8 assigns a value of 90 left or right instead of 45 to the variable Ta. We can allow more turn because we are going to stop when the robot sees an opening anyway. The for-loop allows the robot to try and turn the designated number of degrees. The for-loop will count up if Ta is positive or down if it is negative. The loop keeps track of the last distance read by the range-sensor in the variable OldDist. When the new distance read is smaller than the old distance the Break statement is used to exit the for-loop. Notice the robot is made to turn the value returned by the function Sign(Ta). This value will be 1 if Ta is less than zero, 1 if it is greater than zero and 0 if it is equal to zero. 5.5.3 FURTHER IMPROVEMENTS The improvements made in this chapter are only suggestions. The robot s behavior should be based on the environment in which it is expected to operate. The programs above can fail, for example, if you draw objects that have sharp points because they can be missed by blind spots in the infrared sensors. It is also possible for the robot to become stuck between two objects that are spaced close enough together to trigger the sensors on both sides of the robot at the same time.
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