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6.1 Before You Program
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Before you begin writing a program to control a robot, you should consider the problems and situations the robot will face. You must take into account what sensors you want the robot to have and what data you will be able to acquire. Finally, you must decide how the robot will analyze the data it obtains. This means that you have to determine what data patterns are meaningful and what you want the robot to do when it encounters those patterns. This is not always easy. When a robot navigates through the environment it is likely to produce some unexpected sensory data. Consider the random-roaming programs in Chap. 5. One of the basic behaviors introduced (Fig. 5.7) was that the robot turned right if sensory data showed an object on the left and vice versa. This seems like an algorithm that should work all the time. However, if the environment contains two objects that are just far enough apart to allow the robot to pass between them and, during its random roaming, the robot tries to pass between the two objects in a manner that causes both the left and the right sensors to activate simultaneously, the algorithm will fail. If you inspect the routine in Fig. 5.7 you may notice that none of the three conditions being tested by the if-statements address the situation when the infrared sensors are detecting objects on both the left and right sides of the robot simultaneously. When environmental situations are not anticipated, the robot is likely to react unpredictably at best. The program may sometimes respond with an adequate action, but this only adds to the dif culty of determining the reason for the failure when it occurs.
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6.2 Plan Plan Plan
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The best way to deal with these situations is to plan ahead so you can anticipate the predicaments the robot may face. One way to do this is to use the remote control program from Fig. 4.6 in Chap. 4. Substitute the environmental situations you want to explore and use the remote control features of the program to move the robot into dif cult situations and
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DEBUGGING
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observe the displayed sensory data. Knowledge of how the robot sees its environment will help you choose the sensors you need and what data patterns to program for. In a complex or changing environment you might miss some critical situations no matter how much you plan. When this happens you need a way to discover exactly why your robot is getting baf ed and what actions it should invoke to deal with these situations when they are encountered.
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6.3 Debugging Philosophy
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The basic philosophy of debugging a program is composed of a few steps. First, you need to isolate the general area of the code where the fault is occurring. Next you need to determine why that portion of the code is not performing as expected (locating the speci c source of the problem). Finally, you have to correct the faulty lines or logic that causes the problem. Let s see how each of these can be accomplished. 6.3.1 ISOLATING THE FAULT Assume you have a 200-line program that stalls or hangs when it is run. It would be inef cient to look through the entire program hoping to nd the problem. Often the reason a program hangs is because it is stuck in a loop, doing the same thing over and over but appearing to be doing nothing at all to the observer. This means you have already narrowed the problem down to code that lies within a loop. For example, let s assume there are four major loops in the program. Our next goal would be to determine if one of these loops contains the problem and if so, which one. An easy way to do this would be to place some Print-statements before and after each loop. These would display something like Entering loop 1 or Exiting loop 3 so that when the program is run, you will be able to see how the program is progressing. This procedure should allow you to determine which loop contains the problem. If your program is very large, perhaps containing dozens of loops, you could place similar print statements at the beginning and ending of subroutines to initially isolate the problem to a portion of your code. Once you are down to a manageable size, you could then add more Print-statements to that area to further isolate the problem. 6.3.2 LOCATING THE FAULT Once you have the fault isolated to a manageable area, you need to get information that can help determine why the problem is occurring. Without such information you are only guessing at the source of the problem. Typically, the information you need is the value of a variable or sensor. You can use more Print-statements to obtain this information. Ideally, you would like to get this data each time an action occurs in the program. If you can analyze the values of variables and sensors in the isolated area you should be able to determine why the fault is occurring (perhaps an if-statement is not showing true when you expect it to). The reason for the fault could be that you typed the name of a variable incorrectly or the problem could be with the logic used for dealing with an unanticipated situation in the environment.
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