vb.net barcode scan event FIGURE 7.4 This subroutine will follow a relatively straight line. in Software

Making QR Code in Software FIGURE 7.4 This subroutine will follow a relatively straight line.

FIGURE 7.4 This subroutine will follow a relatively straight line.
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FollowLine: c=0 while c<50 //exit loop if line is not seen for 50 tries if rSense() & 1 then rTurn 1 if rSense() & 4 then rTurn -1 rForward 1 if rSense() // if any sensor sees the line c = 0 // start the counter over else c = c + 1 // increment counter if no line is seen endif wend Return
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FIGURE 7.5 This subroutine knows when the end of the line has been reached.
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any of the routines given from now onwards, replace the FollowLine subroutine in the base program of Fig. 7.1, with the new gures given (Fig. 7.4 in this case). If you test this subroutine you will see that it fails if the line turns too sharply. We will address this problem shortly. 7.2.3 AN IMPROVEMENT One problem with the routine in Fig. 7.4 is that the robot does not know when it loses the line and continues moving until it crashes into a wall. Figure 7.5 shows how the robot can determine when it is no longer on the line. The robot constantly checks to see if any of the sensors are seeing the line. Since it is possible that a thin line could be between two of the sensors (and thus make the robot incorrectly assume it has lost the line), the algorithm will continue trying to follow the line until the sensors have not seen the line 50 times in a row. If you substitute this code into the base program, you will see that the robot stops shortly after losing the line. This is an improvement, but we still need to nd a way to keep the robot on the line.
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7.3 Sharp Turns Cause a Problem
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As mentioned earlier, the algorithms in Figs. 7.4 and 7.5 fail if the line turns sharply. The robot will do just ne if the line is relatively straight, but it will lose the line when there is a sharp turn in it. 7.3.1 POSSIBLE SOLUTIONS In order to solve this problem, we need to understand exactly why it is happening. The robot fails to follow the line when the line turns faster than the robot is turning in this case more than about a 45 change because the algorithm makes the robot turn about 1 pixel left or right for each pixel that it moves forward. When this happens the robot moves past the turn and will not see the line on any of the sensors. It continues moving forward and loses the line.
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FOLLOWING A LINE
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There are relatively straightforward approaches to solving this problem. We can, for example, make sure the robot stays on the line by ensuring that it does not move forward past a turn in the line. This can be done by continuing to turn until it is safe to move forward. Another solution would be to let the robot move past the turn in the line, but give it a means of nding its way back to the line. Either of the above strategies can provide a possible solution for the robot, but they do it in a very different manner. The differences will be re ected in the behavior you see as the robot attempts to follow a line using the above methodologies. In the rst case, the robot will appear to slow down when it sees a sharp turn because it executes more turning than forwarding. In the second algorithm, the robot will constantly move forward, but try to make its way back to the line after it has lost it due to a sharp curve. You might think that the second strategy is better. After all, it should allow the robot to reach the end of the line more quickly if we can implement it properly. However, consider for a moment that the robot in question could be a car driving down a road and not just following a line on the screen. The second algorithm would indeed let the car take a shorter path to the end of the road, but it does so by letting the car take short-cuts by driving off the road when the road makes a sharp turn and then getting back on the road a little further on. It is important to realize that neither of these strategies is necessarily better than the other. Each one has advantages and disadvantages depending on the situation and the environment. One of the advantages of using a simulator is that you can test and improve a variety of algorithms very quickly and test them in various environments just as easily. We will develop two algorithms to implement both strategies discussed above. 7.3.2 A FIRST STRATEGY Figure 7.6 shows a subroutine that implements the rst strategy discussed above. If you run the program, you will see the robot behaving exactly as predicted. For simplicity the code does not check if the end of the line has been reached. Compare Figs. 7.4 and 7.6, the subroutine in Fig. 7.4 lost the line in a fast turn because the robot only checks once (with an if-statement) to see if it needs to turn, and only turns once (if needed) before proceeding forward. This means that the robot can lose the line if the line turns faster than the robot can turn.
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FollowLine: while true rForward 1 while rSense() & 1 rTurn 1 wend while rSense() & 4 rturn -1 wend wend Return
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