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DEVELOPING A TOOLBOX OF BEHAVIORS
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7.6 Exercises
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1. Run the programs in this chapter to see how they perform. Add debugging statements
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2. 3.
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to help analyze the robot s behavior, and nd out why some of the algorithms fail on sharp turns. Try to determine the optimum values for the rForward and rTurn commands (as discussed in Sec. 7.3) for the routine in Fig. 7.7. Choose your favorite algorithm from this chapter (or develop one of your own) and combine it with the DrawObjects subroutine in Fig. 5.2 of Chap. 5 so that your robot can follow any line that the user draws. The routine in Fig. 7.8 is particularly sensitive to the width of the line being followed. It works great if the line has a width of 4 pixels. Try other line widths and explain the behavior that occurs. Check to see if the line width affects any of the other algorithms in this chapter. Modify the line-following algorithm of your choice so that the robot will check for objects that might block its path. When one is found, the robot should turn 180 and follow the line in the reverse direction. Try out the algorithm you develop with obstacles on the line. The line following algorithm given in Fig. 7.9 works most of the time but it does not guarantee that the robot will keep going around the racetrack in the same direction. The way the algorithm works may cause the robot to back track. Can you write a new algorithm to prevent this
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Some memory of the direction of travel may be necessary.
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7. The new main program in Fig. 7.9 calls RoamAround then calls FollowLine. If
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FollowLine ever nishes as in Fig. 7.5, then the main program will go to the next line, which is End. Convert the main program so that it will not end, but keep roaming then following a line then roaming and so on endlessly.
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Use a while-loop.
CHAPTER
FOLLOWING A WALL
here are occasions when it may become necessary for the robot to follow the contour of an object: If a robot encounters an object while moving along an intended path, it might go around the object by navigating around the perimeter of the object. A robot that delivers mail in an of ce environment, for example, might follow a wall down a hallway, visiting each of ce in turn to deposit its cargo and collect new mail. A strategy for solving a maze of corridors is to keep following the walls around in one direction (left or right).
In this chapter you will learn various strategies for enabling the robot to follow the perimeter of an object while staying close to it but not crashing into it or moving too far away.
8.1 Constructing a Wall
Before we can examine the algorithms we will need a relatively complex contour with which to test our strategies. Also we will need a base program, which we will use throughout with only a few changes to accommodate the various algorithms. The robot will start by moving forward until it encounters an obstacle. When it encounters an obstacle the robot will abandon the forward-moving behavior and start the wall-following behavior.
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DEVELOPING A TOOLBOX OF BEHAVIORS
Figure 8.1 shows a template with a main program and three subroutines. The main program calls the subroutines in order as they become needed and locates the robot on the screen. The line that sets the variable TurnDir will be needed in later sections and will be discussed there. We set the list of invisible colors and put the pen down. We put the pen down in order to leave a trail behind the robot while it is following the wall. This helps in observing the robot s behavior and gauging the algorithms effectiveness (or lack thereof), as you will notice later. You have seen the pen feature in Chap. 4 and will learn more about it in Chaps. 10 and 11 (see Sec. C.9 for more details). The rst color on the list of invisible colors will be used by the pen to draw when it is lowered since no color was speci ed when the rPen command was issued. Similarly the second color will be the default color used by the rDFeel() function. We will use rDFeel() later in the chapter. The subroutine DrawWall does exactly that using mPolygon and the array Wall created by the series of Data statements, as in Chap. 7. The subroutine RoamAround makes the robot move forward until it encounters an obstacle. When the robot encounters an obstacle the routine is terminated, which causes the program ow to go back to the main program, which then starts FollowWall. This subroutine is left empty for now. We will develop various wall following algorithms that will be substitutions for this routine.
MainProgram: gosub DrawWall rLocate 100,300,50 rInvisible Cyan,Red rPen Down gosub RoamAround TurnDir = -1 gosub FollowWall End //========================================================== DrawWall: ClearScr LineWidth 4 Data Wall;-161, 177, 220, 124, 375, 155, 485, 275 Data Wall; 624, 300, 668, 370, 517, 412, 499, 320 Data Wall; 499, 321, 389, 387, 361, 311, 369, 283 Data Wall; 348, 235, 334, 275, 318, 223, 251, 319 Data Wall; 161, 177, 247,-193 MPolygon Wall,Blue Return //========================================================== RoamAround: while not(rBumper()&4) rForward 1 wend Return //========================================================== FollowWall: //we will develop this later Return //==========================================================
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