vb.net read usb barcode scanner FIGURE 8.1 This code draws a wall for the robot to follow and starts moving it forward. in Software

Printing QR Code JIS X 0510 in Software FIGURE 8.1 This code draws a wall for the robot to follow and starts moving it forward.

FIGURE 8.1 This code draws a wall for the robot to follow and starts moving it forward.
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FOLLOWING A WALL
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FollowWall: while true // anything on right makes you turn left while rFeel() & 3 rTurn -1 wend rForward 1 rTurn 1 wend Return
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FIGURE 8.2 This code is a basic algorithm for following a wall.
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8.2 A Basic Algorithm
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In order to understand how the robot can follow a wall, imagine that you are blindfolded and are asked to stay close to a wall as you follow it to a desired destination. You would probably put out one hand (your right hand if the wall was on your right) to help you know that the wall is still there. As the distance between you and the wall becomes larger your hand will eventually stop touching the wall. You would then need to turn to your right and move forward to get closer to the wall again. If you nd yourself getting closer to the wall you would have to bend your arm. To maintain your arm stretched out you will need to turn away from the wall to avoid running into it. Figure 8.2 shows one method for telling the robot how to achieve the above logic. Replace the FollowWall subroutine of Fig. 8.1 with the one in Fig. 8.2. The outer while-loop makes the robot follow the wall forever. The inner whileloop turns the robot away from the wall as long as either of the infrared sensors on the right side of the robot can detect the wall. The robot then moves forward and turns back toward the wall. 8.2.1 PROBLEMS WITH THE BASIC ALGORITHM There are two shortcomings with this algorithm. If you look at Fig. 8.3 you will see both of them. The rst problem is that the robot tends to move in arcs around the wall rather than following it in a parallel line. The second problem is that the robot crashes into the rst hard turn it encounters. Let us analyze why the logic failed. However, before we can do this let s observe the infrared sensors while the algorithm is running. If you replace the rFeel() function with the rDFeel() function you will be able to observe the infrared beams while the robot is moving. Since no color is speci ed the second color on the invisible colors list (red) will be used to display the infrared beams [read about rDFeel() in Sec. C.9]. Observing the infrared beams is a great help in analyzing what the robot sees, and can give real insight into why it fails in situations you think should work. Combining rDFeel() with Debug statements can help you gure out many complicated and puzzling situations. You will notice that the robot is moving in arcs due to the way infrared beams are tested. We are testing for either or both of the right beams [rFeel() & 3, 3 = 00011 in binary]. This means that the robot will turn away from the wall until the right-hand beam is not
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FIGURE 8.3 Simple algorithm fails.
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sensing the wall, which is almost 90 . The robot then moves forward and turns. This forwarding and turning is the reason we get the arcs. The robot will move in an arc until it encounters the wall again and turn away 90 and so on. The reason for the crash is that the 90 and 45 right sensors did not sense the wall at the angle in the wall you can see in Fig. 8.3. This means that the robot will continue forwarding. Unfortunately there is no way for the robot to know that there is still part of the wall ahead and thus will crash into it. 8.2.2 IMPROVING THE ALGORITHM To prevent the robot from turning too far away from the wall we will ignore the 90 sensor. Also to give the robot the ability to see ahead of it we will test the front sensor. So instead of testing for rFeel() & 3 we will test for rFeel() & 6. Replace the value 3 with 6 (binary 00110) in Fig. 8.2 and run the program again. As you can see from Fig. 8.4, the robot does indeed follow the wall in a straight line. However, if you look closely, you will notice that the robot still tends to loop around sharp corners. This happens because the robot cannot turn fast enough to follow the sharp turn because it only turns 1 for every 1 pixel forward move. We will solve this problem shortly, but rst let s examine a more critical problem.
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