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8.4 A Different Approach
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All of the algorithms so far have used the infrared sensors as the primary means of feeling for the wall. While these sensors are very effective and may be the only type of sensors available in a real-robot situation, they are lacking in two ways. First they leave gaps that can cause problems. You can use more sensors, placed closer together, but this can get expensive. The second problem is that the range of the sensors is not easily adjustable and you cannot control how far the robot stays away from the wall. You can adjust the power (or even the frequency in some cases) applied to the infrared emitters to make the detectors sense shorter or longer distances, but this requires more complex electronics.
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FOLLOWING A WALL
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FIGURE 8.7
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rRange (Angle).
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Using a ranging sensor instead of infrared sensors can eliminate both of the above shortcomings. The rRange() function in RobotBASIC can be used in two ways. If you use rRange() without an argument, it assumes you want to measure the distance to objects directly in front of the robot. If you give rRange() an angle, however, it will measure the distance to objects at the angle you specify. Figure 8.7 shows how the measurement of the distance is in reference to the front of the robot and how the angle pivots around the front of the robot. You can give the function any angle from 90 to 90 . The distance to an object is relative to the front of the robot along the direction given. In real life such a sensor can be easily built by mounting a distance-measuring device on a stepper-motor (or servo-motor) turret so that the software can turn the ranging hardware without turning the entire robot. However, if you are going to measure only one or two angles then instead of a motor to turn the single sensor, it might be cheaper and more convenient to just mount one or two sensors at the angles required. If you need to adjust the sensors to tweak the robot s behavior just turn them by hand to the proper angles. The advantage of using the range sensor is that you can make the robot stay at a speci ed distance from the wall. Also you can use only one sensor and you do not need to worry about gaps since the ranger can be turned to any angle needed. In the algorithm developed below only three angles are necessary. It is a lot easier to maintain the robot parallel to the wall using a ranger than using infrared sensors. The rst action of the algorithm in Fig. 8.8 is to set some parameters that de ne the behavior and response of the robot. These parameters are crucial and you should experiment with different values to see how the robot may stay closer or further away from the wall. If the robot gets too close to the wall, however, it may still run the risk of crashing into real sharp corners despite the use of the rBumper() sensors. Also, when you get too close to the wall the robot seems to rely more on its bumpers to avoid the wall. This means that the robot would be scraping along the wall. Lines 6 to 14 ensure that the robot is angled parallel to the wall in the direction as de ned by the variable TurnDir. The robot will have the wall to its left (TurnDir 1) or to its right (TurnDir 1). Also, Lines 12 to 14 ensure that the ranger will be sensing the wall at the required value (RangeLimit). We will follow a different strategy around corners than we have done before. We will conclude that the robot is at a corner if the ranger returns a value greater than a certain
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