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00 01 02 03 04 05 06 07 08 09 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46
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//-----Constants F_RandomTurn = 3 F_RandomTurn_Percent = 10 LineAvoidA = 3 LA_RandomTurn = 3 TurnAroundA = 60 //======================================================= MainProgram: linewidth 7 rectangle 50,50,650,550,red rlocate 100,100,90 rInvisible red GoSub Confine End //======================================================= Confine: while true while not rSense() rforward 1 if random(10000) < 10000%F_RandomTurn_Percent rTurn random(F_RandomTurn) endif wend S = rSense() if S = 4 OR S = 6 C_Ta = (LineAvoidA+random(LA_RandomTurn)) SN = 1 elseif S = 1 OR S = 3 C_Ta = -(LineAvoidA+random(LA_RandomTurn)) SN = 4 elseif S = 2 or S = 7 C_Ta = 180-TurnAroundA/2+random(TurnAroundA) SN = 1 elseif S = 5 rTurn 180-TurnAroundA/2+random(TurnAroundA) continue endif for i=0 to C_Ta rTurn sign(C_Ta) if rSense()& SN rTurn 180 break endif next wend Return //=======================================================
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FIGURE 9.2 A better behaving robot.
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to this, which is de ned in LA_RandomTurn. The turn amount to avoid the line when it is approached head on is 180 an amount set by the value in TurnAroundA. Experiment with these values to see the effect on the effectiveness of the algorithm. These numbers can make the robot behave quite differently. Lines 19 to 21 determine if the robot should turn in addition to forwarding. Turning occurs only F_RandomTurn_Percent of the time. The amount of turn is random up to F_RandomTurn degrees.
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In Lines 24 to 32 the amount of turn is set in the variable C_Ta but no actual turning occurs until later. The amount of turn is a xed amount plus an additional random amount as set by the variables. On Lines 26, 29, and 32 the variable SN is set to indicate which sensor will be used to test in Line 39 (see later for explanation). If turning to the left is to be done then the left sensor will be used (SN 4) and if turning to the right then the right sensor (SN 1) will be used. The actual turning is carried out by the for-loop (Lines 37 43). This loop turns the robot as indicated by the variable C_Ta a degree at a time. Notice the use of the function Sign() to make sure the turn direction is the correct one. The loop tests to see if the sensor in the direction of the turn ever touches the line. If it does then there is a possibility of the robot s front ending up outside the line. In this case the robot is made to turn 180 (turn around) and the loop is abandoned. In Lines 33 to 36 the stalling situation discussed at the end of the previous section is handled. This situation does not cause the robot s front to turn outside the line and the actual turning is carried out on Line 34. On Line 35 a Continue statement is used to make the program ow go back to the top of the while-loop and avoid going into Lines 37 to 43, which are only needed in the other situations. In the next section we will see what we can do to avoid the robot s body protruding outside the line as much as it does in this section.
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In the previous section we developed an acceptable algorithm that was adequate for the situation it was designed to tackle. However, the algorithm did allow a portion of the robot s body to brie y move outside the con nement area. This would be unacceptable if the area was a table for instance, or a landing on the second oor. The robot would just topple over the moment its center of gravity went over the table. Even if its center of gravity remained on the table, if one of its wheels goes beyond the edge of the table it would cease creating traction while the other wheel would continue doing so, which would turn the robot toward the ledge eventually causing it to fall over the edge. In the table top situation it would not be acceptable for the robot to have more than a very small fraction of its body protrude over the edge of the table (never any of its wheels). In this section we will explore how to achieve this. Obstacle avoidance will also be added to the behavior so the robot can avoid obstacles at the same time that it is avoiding the edge of the table or landing. To detect an edge in a real life situation there are many sensors that can detect a change in light intensity or color variation, which indicates that there is a change in the surface that is being sensed. This can tell us that the oor is dropping. Such sensors require a constant color and re ectivity surface. Another method is to have a sonar or infrared sensor that can measure the distance to the oor. An increase in the distance indicates that the oor is dropping away. The problem with this method is that many of the available sensors do not measure small distances accurately, which is necessary for this application. This simulation will make use of specialized ground sensors. RobotBASIC has downward-facing color sensors accessed with the function rGroundA() that returns the
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