vb.net read usb barcode scanner DEVELOPING A TOOLBOX OF BEHAVIORS in Software

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DEVELOPING A TOOLBOX OF BEHAVIORS
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9.5 Exercises
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1. Add obstacle avoidance to the program in Fig. 9.2, include obstacles and see the results.
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HINT:
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Study the routines in Fig. 9.3; you can use the same logic.
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2. Write an algorithm that enables the robot to roam around a table while avoiding obsta-
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cles (as in Fig. 9.3), but also not entering a zone on the table designated by a border as in the program of Fig. 9.2.
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HINT:
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Try combining the two algorithms of Figs. 9.2 and 9.3.
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3. Change the data in the DrawBoundary subroutine to create different boundaries.
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Does the robot always stay inside Does it ever exit the area What if you try a set of data where there is a break in the virtual wall 4. Line 31 in Fig. 9.6 has a formula that says: m 1.0*(Y2 Y1)/(X2 X1), why not just say: m (Y2 Y1)/(X2 X1) What is the reason for using 1.0 in the formula
HINT: See Secs. B.7.1 and B.7.5 for details of on integer and oating-point numbers and operations on these numbers.
5. In Fig. 9.6, comment out Line 47 and Lines 49 to 50. Now run the program and see
what happens. Can you explain the reason for the robot s behavior
HINT:
It seems to be avoiding boundaries that are not there. Why
6. The subroutine TestViolation does not consider where the boundary line touches
or crosses the robot s perimeter. If it had done so we could have used a better avoidance mechanism such as the one in Fig. 9.3. Can you modify the subroutine to give the Violation a value that indicates the place where the robot s body is touching the boundary line (instead of just true or false)
HINT: Calculate the angle an intercept point makes in relation to the robot s center point and its center line (left [ ] and right [ ]) and set Violation to that value [you can use PolarA() with additional calculations]. However, this will slow the program appreciably.
CHAPTER
VECTOR GRAPHICS ROBOT
he robot in RobotBASIC has a feature that facilitates many possibilities for innovation. This feature is a pen at its center that can be lowered to allow the robot to leave a trace on the oor as it moves (you have seen some uses of this feature in previous chapters). With the proper program we can convert the robot into a device for drawing vector graphics (meaning we specify a line to be drawn with a starting point, an angle, and a length). This feature can be used for a variety of projects: Draw and write on the oor. Show area covered by the robot for a sweeper simulation. Display the effectiveness of an algorithm by showing the path taken. Solve mazes by leaving a breadcrumbs trail.
In this chapter we will develop a few applications utilizing this feature to draw and write on the oor. In Chap. 8 we used the pen feature to observe the effectiveness of the algorithms and in Chap. 4 we used it to observe the trajectory of the robot and could have used the robot as a remote controlled sketching tool. The other options will be explored in subsequent chapters. There are many industrial applications for a robot that can draw on a surface. A robot could cut intricate and complex designs out of metal sheets if a laser cutter is substituted for the pen. Imagine a robot that can draw the yard lines and other messages and designs on a football eld once the desired data has been given to it.
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DEVELOPING A TOOLBOX OF BEHAVIORS
10.1 DrawBot
The command to lower and raise the pen is:
rPen ExprN1 {,ExprN2}
If ExprN1 is 0, the pen will be raised and, if it is any number other than 0 the pen will be lowered. You can also use the constants Up and Down (see Sec. B.7.6). ExprN1 has to be a number. The pen is up when you rst initialize and rLocate the robot. ExprN2 is optional. If it is speci ed then the color of the pen will be set to ExprN2. If it is not speci ed then the color of the pen will be set to the rst color on the invisible colors list. If you have not speci ed an invisible colors list then the pen color will be black. ExprN2 should be a valid color number (see Sec. B.7.6). If you don t place the pen s color in the list of invisible colors the robot will crash if it ever encounters its own trace. You must specify any colors you are likely to draw on the oor with the pen as invisible colors so the robot will be able to drive over them. You can reissue the rPen command with a different color to draw as many colors as you desire. The command LineWidth will set the pen s width. This command was discussed in Chaps. 5 and 7. If you are unfamiliar with these commands refer to Secs. C.7 and C.9 for details. The pen is exactly at the center of the robot and, when lowered, will draw a line trailing behind the robot whenever an rForward command causes the robot to move. Obviously, since the pen is at the center, an rTurn will not create any trail, but as you turn and forward the trail will display the path the robot has taken. Let us see how these commands can be used to make the robot draw a square on the oor. Type the program in Fig. 10.2 and run it. You will observe the result shown in Fig. 10.1. As you can see, it is very simple to make the robot draw. The robot can be made to behave like a vector plotter. You may not have seen these devices before, but they are used in many engineering of ces. They can draw using a pen and instructions to move to speci ed X, Y coordinates on a at surface and to lower or raise pens of various colors. These devices are aptly called xy-plotters. Our robot can behave as an xy-plotter with programs like the one in Fig. 10.2.
10.1.1 DRAWING CIRCLES The program in Fig. 10.3 makes the robot draw a circle. Type it and see the result. The subroutine DrawCircle is what makes the circle. Notice the line rForward fStep. Rather than forwarding a xed distance, the subroutine forwards a distance de ned by the variable fStep. This variable must be assigned a value prior to calling the subroutine. The same thing is done in the line rTurn tStep and in the for-next loop. Here the rate of turn is speci ed by tStep and again has to be assigned prior to calling the routine. The limit of the loop is 360/tStep rather than 360 so that if the rate of turn is changed the routine still continues to turn 360 and no more. What will happen if tStep is set to 1 Experiment with changing these numbers and try to predict the results. First try changing only fStep and see the outcome. Then only change tStep and observe the action.
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